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Ribosome profiling (ribo-seq) provides a means to analyze active translation by determining ribosome occupancy in a transcriptome-wide manner. The vast majority of ribosome protected fragments (RPFs) resides within the protein-coding sequence of mRNAs. However, commonly reads are also found within the transcript leader sequence (TLS) (aka 5' untranslated region) preceding the main open reading frame (ORF), indicating the translation of regulatory upstream ORFs (uORFs). Here, we present a workflow for the identification of translation-regulatory uORFs. Specifically, uORF-Tools uses Ribo-TISH to identify uORFs within a given dataset and generates a uORF annotation file. In addition, a comprehensive human uORF annotation file, based on 35 ribo-seq files, is provided, which can serve as an alternative input file for the workflow. To assess the translation-regulatory activity of the uORFs, stimulus-induced changes in the ratio of the RPFs residing in the main ORFs relative to those found in the associated uORFs are determined. The resulting output file allows for the easy identification of candidate uORFs, which have translation-inhibitory effects on their associated main ORFs. uORF-Tools is available as a free and open Snakemake workflow at https://github.com/Biochemistry1-FFM/uORF-Tools. It is easily installed and all necessary tools are provided in a version-controlled manner, which also ensures lasting usability. uORF-Tools is designed for intuitive use and requires only limited computing times and resources.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
An interferon regulatory factor that binds upstream TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORY ELEMENTS in the GENES for INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It functions as a transcriptional activator for the INTERFERON TYPE I genes.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
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