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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy that capitalizes on cancer-specific porphyrin accumulation. We have investigated this phenomenon to propose the following three conclusions: 1) the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is closely related to both nitric oxide (NO) and heme carrier protein-1 (HCP-1), 2) NO inactivates ferrochelatase, and thus, the intracellular porphyrin levels in the cells are increased by the administration of an NO donor after 5-aminolevulinic acid treatment, 3) HCP-1 transports not only heme but also other porphyrins. Since NO stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, resulting in the upregulation of heme biosynthesis, HCP-1 expression can be increased by HIF-1α stabilization. In this study, we determined whether NO regulates HCP-1 expression by stabilizing HIF-1α expression. For this purpose, rat gastric cancer cell line RGK36 was treated with L-arginine or N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine (L-NIL). L-arginine treatment increased the intracellular NO concentration, and both HCP-1 and HIF-1α expression, while L-NIL treatment decreased them. Cytotoxicity of PDT was enhanced by L-arginine, following intracellular hemato-porphyrin dihydrochloride (HpD) accumulation. Both Cytotoxicity of PDT and HpD accumulation were decreased by L-NIL. The HCP-1 and HIF-1α expression, intracellular HpD accumulation and PDT cytotoxicity were decreased by 2-methoxyestradiol, which is a HIF-1α inhibitor. Moreover, these phenomena were not increased by a combination of both L-arginine and 2-Me. Thus, HCP-1 can be a downstream target of HIF-1α. These effects were also induced in the human gastric cancer cell line MKN45. Taken together, we conclude that HCP-1 expression is regulated by NO via HIF-1α stabilization.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
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