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Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is biodegradable and renewable and thus considered as a promising alternative to petroleum-based plastics. However, PHB production is costly due to expensive carbon sources for culturing PHB-accumulating microorganisms under sterile conditions. We discovered a hyper PHB-accumulating denitrifying bacterium, Zobellella denitrificans ZD1 (referred as strain ZD1 hereafter) capable of using non-sterile crude glycerol (a waste from biodiesel production) and nitrate to produce high PHB yield under saline conditions. Nevertheless, the underlying genetic mechanisms of PHB production in strain ZD1 have not been elucidated. In this study, we discovered a complete pathway of glycerol conversion to PHB, a novel PHB synthesis gene cluster, a salt-tolerant gene cluster, denitrifying genes, and an assimilatory nitrate reduction gene cluster in the ZD1 genome. Interestingly, the novel PHB synthesis gene cluster was found to be conserved among marine Gammaproteobacteria. Higher levels of PHB accumulation were linked to higher expression levels of the PHB synthesis gene cluster in ZD1 grown with glycerol and nitrate under saline conditions. Additionally, a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas type-I-E antiviral system was found in the ZD1 genome along with a long spacer list, in which most of the spacers belong to either double-stranded DNA viruses or unknown phages. The results of the genome analysis revealed strain ZD1 used the novel PHB gene cluster to produce PHB from non-sterile crude glycerol under saline conditions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
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