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Within the world's oceans, regionally distinct ecological niches develop due to differences in water temperature, nutrients, food availability, predation and light intensity. This results in differences in the vertical dispersion of planktonic foraminifera on the global scale. Understanding the controls on these modern-day distributions is important when using these organisms for paleoceanographic reconstructions. As such, this study constrains modern depth habitats for the northern equatorial Indian Ocean, for 14 planktonic foraminiferal species (G. ruber, G. elongatus, G. pyramidalis, G. rubescens, T. sacculifer, G. siphonifera, G. glutinata, N. dutertrei, G. bulloides, G. ungulata, P. obliquiloculata, G. menardii, G. hexagonus, G. scitula) using stable isotopic signatures (δ18O and δ13C) and Mg/Ca ratios. We evaluate two aspects of inferred depth habitats: (1) the significance of the apparent calcification depth (ACD) calculation method/equations and (2) regional species-specific ACD controls. Through a comparison with five global, (sub)tropical studies we found the choice of applied equation and δ18Osw significant and an important consideration when comparing with the published literature. The ACDs of the surface mixed layer and thermocline species show a tight clustering between 73-109 m water depth coinciding with the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Furthermore, the ACDs for the sub-thermocline species are positioned relative to secondary peaks in the local primary production. We surmise that food source plays a key role in the relative living depths for the majority of the investigated planktonic foraminifera within this oligotrophic environment of the Maldives and elsewhere in the tropical oceans.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
Most research on extant planktonic foraminifera has been directed towards larger species (>0.150 mm) which can be easily manipulated, counted and yield enough calcite for geochemical analyses. This ha...
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Marine ALGAE widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.
A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.
An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.
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