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Although doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy causes lethal heart failure (HF), no early detection or effective treatment methods are available. The principal mechanisms of cardiotoxicity are considered to involve oxidative stress and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. However, the effect of DOX on cardiac fibroblasts at non-lethal concentrations remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effect of doxorubicin on the activation of cardiac fibroblasts independent of cell death pathways. We first found that DOX induced α-SMA expression (marker of trans-differentiation) at a low concentration range, which did not inhibit cell viability. DOX also increased MMP1, IL-6, TGF-β and collagen expression in human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs). In addition, DOX promoted Akt and Smad phosphorylation. A Smad inhibitor prevented DOX-induced α-SMA and IL-6 protein expression. An PI3K inhibitor also prevented MMP1 mRNA expression in HCFs. These findings suggest that DOX directly induces fibrotic changes in HCFs via cell death-independent pathways. Furthermore, we confirmed that these responses are organ- and species-specific for HCFs based on experiments using different types of human and murine fibroblast cell lines. These results suggest potentially new mechanisms of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity from the viewpoint of fibrotic changes in cardiac fibroblasts.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
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