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Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is the major surface glycoconjugate of Leishmania protozoan and has an important biological role in host-parasite interactions both in the midgut epithelium of the sand fly vector and in the vertebrate macrophages. Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a chronic infectious disease predominantly caused by Leishmania infantum. An early and accurate immunodiagnosis of the disease is crucial for veterinary clinical practice and for disease control. In this work, we evaluated L. infantum LPG as an antigen in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for CanL immunodiagnosis (LPG-ELISA) by testing serum samples from 97 naturally infected dogs with diverse clinical presentations ranging from subclinical infection to severe disease, as evaluated by veterinarian infectologists. Serum samples from healthy dogs from non-endemic areas (n = 68) and from dogs with other infectious diseases (n = 64) were used as controls for assay validation. The performance of the LPG-ELISA was compared with that of an ELISA using the soluble fraction of L. infantum total lysate antigen (TLA). LPG-ELISA presented a superior performance in comparison to TLA-ELISA, with 91.5% sensitivity, 98.5% specificity and 99.7% accuracy. A distinguishing feature of the LPG-ELISA compared to the TLA-ELISA was its higher ability to identify subclinical infection in clinically healthy dogs, in addition to the absence of cross-reactivity with other canine infectious diseases. Finally, LPG-ELISA was compared to TR DPP visceral canine leishmaniasis test, the immunochromatographic test recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. LPG-ELISA exhibited higher values of specificity (98.5% versus 93.1%) and sensitivity (91.5% versus 90.6%) compared to TR DPP. In conclusion, L. infantum-derived LPG was recognized by antibodies elicited during CanL in different infection stages and was shown to be a suitable antigen for specific clinical settings of veterinary diagnosis and for public health usage.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS neglected tropical diseases
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A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
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