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Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for brain development. While disruption of TH signaling by environmental chemicals has been discussed as a mechanism of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) for more than a decade, there remains a paucity of information linking specific TH disrupting chemicals to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. This data gap reflects, in part, the fact that the molecular machinery of TH signaling is complex and varies according to cell type and developmental time. Thus, establishing a baseline of the ontogenetic profile of expression of TH signaling molecules in relevant cell types is critical for developing in vitro and alternative systems-based models for screening TH disrupting chemicals for DNT. Here, we characterize the transcriptomic profile of molecules critical to TH signaling across three species-human, rat, and zebrafish-in vitro and in vivo across different stages of neurodevelopment. Our data indicate that while cultured human and rat neural progenitor cells, primary cultures of rat cortical cells, and larval zebrafish all express a fairly comprehensive transcriptome of TH signaling molecules, the spatiotemporal expression profiles as well as the responses to TH vary across species and developmental stages. The data presented here provides a roadmap for identifying appropriate in vitro and in simpler systems-based models for mechanistic studies and screening of chemicals that alter neurodevelopment via interference with TH action.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
Genes related to the erbA DNA sequence that was first isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN), v-erbA. In cells, erbA genes encode thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA genes have been identified: erbA-alpha located at 17q21; and erbA-beta located at 3p24. Truncations at the N- and C-terminals of erbA result in products resembling v-erbA. Truncations affect hormone responsiveness but not DNA binding capacity.
The introduction of new genes into cells for the purpose of treating disease by restoring or adding gene expression. Techniques include insertion of retroviral vectors, transfection, homologous recombination, and injection of new genes into the nuclei of single cell embryos. The entire gene therapy process may consist of multiple steps. The new genes may be introduced into proliferating cells in vivo (e.g., bone marrow) or in vitro (e.g., fibroblast cultures) and the modified cells transferred to the site where the gene expression is required. Gene therapy may be particularly useful for treating enzyme deficiency diseases, hemoglobinopathies, and leukemias and may also prove useful in restoring drug sensitivity, particularly for leukemia.
An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
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Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Disorders Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several g...