V1 interneurons regulate the pattern and frequency of locomotor-like activity in the neonatal mouse spinal cord.

08:00 EDT 12th September 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "V1 interneurons regulate the pattern and frequency of locomotor-like activity in the neonatal mouse spinal cord."

In the mouse spinal cord, V1 interneurons are a heterogeneous population of inhibitory spinal interneurons that have been implicated in regulating the frequency of the locomotor rhythm and in organizing flexor and extensor alternation. By introducing archaerhodopsin into engrailed-1-positive neurons, we demonstrate that the function of V1 neurons in locomotor-like activity is more complex than previously thought. In the whole cord, V1 hyperpolarization increased the rhythmic synaptic drive to flexor and extensor motoneurons, increased the spiking in each cycle, and slowed the locomotor-like rhythm. In the hemicord, V1 hyperpolarization accelerated the rhythm after an initial period of tonic activity, implying that a subset of V1 neurons are active in the hemicord, which was confirmed by calcium imaging. Hyperpolarizing V1 neurons resulted in an equalization of the duty cycle in flexor and extensors from an asymmetrical pattern in control recordings in which the extensor bursts were longer than the flexor bursts. Our results suggest that V1 interneurons are composed of several subsets with different functional roles. Furthermore, during V1 hyperpolarization, the default state of the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) is symmetrical, with antagonist motoneurons each firing with an approximately 50% duty cycle. We hypothesize that one function of the V1 population is to set the burst durations of muscles to be appropriate to their biomechanical function and to adapt to the environmental demands, such as changes in locomotor speed.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PLoS biology
ISSN: 1545-7885
Pages: e3000447


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [19317 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Transcription Factors Sp8 and Sp9 Regulate the Development of Caudal Ganglionic Eminence-derived Cortical Interneurons.

Cortical interneurons are derived from the subcortical medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) and preoptic area (POA). CGE-derived cortical interneurons, which comprise aro...

Somatostatin Interneurons Promote Neuronal Synchrony in the Neonatal Hippocampus.

Synchronized activity is a universal characteristic of immature neural circuits that is essential for their developmental refinement and strongly depends on GABAergic neurotransmission. A major subpop...

Diurnal properties of voltage-gated Ca currents in SCN and roles in action potential firing.

Circadian oscillations in spontaneous action potential firing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) translates time-of-day throughout the mammalian brain. The ion channels that regulate the circadian p...

Interneurons Tap the Brakes on Learning.

Little was previously known about the behavioral role of low-threshold spiking interneurons in the striatum. In this issue of Neuron, Holly et al. (2019) show that their activity can slow the acquisi...

Cholinergic modulation of striatal nitric oxide-producing interneurons.

Striatal GABAergic interneurons that express nitric oxide synthase - so-called low threshold spike interneurons (LTSIs) - play several key roles in the striatum. But what drives the activity of these ...

Clinical Trials [7497 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Management of Early Onset Neonatal Septicaemia: Selection of Optimal Antibacterial Regimen for Empiric Treatment

A prospective two-center antibiotic regimen switch study will be conducted to compare the clinical efficacy of two antibiotic regimens - penicillin/gentamicin versus ampicillin/gentamicin ...

Effects of rTMS Based on Hemodynamic Activity for Language Recovery in Early Poststroke Aphasia

The aim of this study is to assess the safety and clinical efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) based on hemodynamic brain activity pattern with functional near ...

Deep Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Cessation of Pathological Gambling

Pathological gambling (PG) is characterized by a persistent pattern of continued gambling behavior despite its adverse consequences. PG is a chronic, progressive, male-dominated disorder, ...

Selective High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) for Neonates

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) remains a major respiratory disorder for the increasing preterm population, and its incidence has been confirmed to be increased gradually with...

Real-time Monitoring of Motor Cortical Activity Induced by Low-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

In this study, we investigated the effect of low-frequency repetitive trans cranial magnetic stimulation, one of the noninvasive brain stimuli, on the functional changes of the bilateral m...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

INTERNEURONS with projections to the contralateral side of the SPINAL CORD. Both excitatory and inhibitory interneurons are involved in coordinating alternative left-right activities during LOCOMOTION.

A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.

Ipsilateral glycinergic inhibitory interneurons of the SPINAL CORD VENTRAL HORN which modulate recurrent firing of MOTOR NEURONS. They develop from embryonic progenitor domain V1.Ia inhibitory interneurons which also originate from V1 are responsible for reciprocal inhibition of MOTONEURONS.

Most generally any neurons which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.

Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.

Quick Search

DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...

Spinal Cord Disorders
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of the back which carry signals back and forth between the body and brain. It is protected by vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up the spine. An accident that damages the verte...

Searches Linking to this Article