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In the mouse spinal cord, V1 interneurons are a heterogeneous population of inhibitory spinal interneurons that have been implicated in regulating the frequency of the locomotor rhythm and in organizing flexor and extensor alternation. By introducing archaerhodopsin into engrailed-1-positive neurons, we demonstrate that the function of V1 neurons in locomotor-like activity is more complex than previously thought. In the whole cord, V1 hyperpolarization increased the rhythmic synaptic drive to flexor and extensor motoneurons, increased the spiking in each cycle, and slowed the locomotor-like rhythm. In the hemicord, V1 hyperpolarization accelerated the rhythm after an initial period of tonic activity, implying that a subset of V1 neurons are active in the hemicord, which was confirmed by calcium imaging. Hyperpolarizing V1 neurons resulted in an equalization of the duty cycle in flexor and extensors from an asymmetrical pattern in control recordings in which the extensor bursts were longer than the flexor bursts. Our results suggest that V1 interneurons are composed of several subsets with different functional roles. Furthermore, during V1 hyperpolarization, the default state of the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) is symmetrical, with antagonist motoneurons each firing with an approximately 50% duty cycle. We hypothesize that one function of the V1 population is to set the burst durations of muscles to be appropriate to their biomechanical function and to adapt to the environmental demands, such as changes in locomotor speed.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS biology
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INTERNEURONS with projections to the contralateral side of the SPINAL CORD. Both excitatory and inhibitory interneurons are involved in coordinating alternative left-right activities during LOCOMOTION.
A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.
Ipsilateral glycinergic inhibitory interneurons of the SPINAL CORD VENTRAL HORN which modulate recurrent firing of MOTOR NEURONS. They develop from embryonic progenitor domain V1.Ia inhibitory interneurons which also originate from V1 are responsible for reciprocal inhibition of MOTONEURONS.
Most generally any neurons which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
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Spinal Cord Disorders
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