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A 2018 Approach to Combating Methotrexate Toxicity Folic Acid and Beyond.

08:00 EDT 1st September 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "A 2018 Approach to Combating Methotrexate Toxicity Folic Acid and Beyond."

Methotrexate (MTX) is the cornerstone to management across a variety of rheumatic diseases. Effective use and adherence to MTX treatment is dependent on toxicity prevention and management. The major deterrents to patient tolerability and adherence can include GI upset, hepatic transaminase elevation, stomatitis, hair loss, and CNS toxicity. Many rheumatologists are familiar with employing supplementation of folic acid and folinic acid, as well as a change from oral to subcutaneous (SC) MTX, to help combat MTX toxicity. There are, however, more potential strategies in a rheumatologist's armamentarium to ameliorate side effects and improve adherence, including vitamin A supplementation and dextromethorphan. Herein, we will provide a review of the literature (both rheumatologic and oncologic) and expert opinion in terms of managing methotrexate toxicity and improving adherence in rheumatic diseases.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Disease (2013)
ISSN: 2328-5273
Pages: 151-155

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as its calcium salt as an antidote to folic acid antagonists which block the conversion of folic acid to folinic acid.

An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.

Cell surface receptors that bind to and transport FOLIC ACID, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and a variety of folic acid derivatives. The receptors are essential for normal NEURAL TUBE development and transport folic acid via receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Derivatives of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid). In gamma-glutamyl linkage they are found in many tissues. They are converted to folic acid by the action of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase or synthesized from folic acid by the action of folate polyglutamate synthetase. Synthetic pteroylpolyglutamic acids, which are in alpha-glutamyl linkage, are active in bacterial growth assays.

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)

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