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Methotrexate (MTX) is the cornerstone to management across a variety of rheumatic diseases. Effective use and adherence to MTX treatment is dependent on toxicity prevention and management. The major deterrents to patient tolerability and adherence can include GI upset, hepatic transaminase elevation, stomatitis, hair loss, and CNS toxicity. Many rheumatologists are familiar with employing supplementation of folic acid and folinic acid, as well as a change from oral to subcutaneous (SC) MTX, to help combat MTX toxicity. There are, however, more potential strategies in a rheumatologist's armamentarium to ameliorate side effects and improve adherence, including vitamin A supplementation and dextromethorphan. Herein, we will provide a review of the literature (both rheumatologic and oncologic) and expert opinion in terms of managing methotrexate toxicity and improving adherence in rheumatic diseases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Disease (2013)
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required all enriched cereal grains to be fortified with folic acid in 1998. In April 2016, the FDA published regulations allowing voluntary fortif...
Methotrexate is a folic acid antagonist known to be teratogenic in humans. Several cases of congenital malformations after fetal exposure to methotrexate have been published, resulting in the establis...
Timing of folic acid/vitamin B12 supplementation and hematologic toxicity during first-line treatment of patients with nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer using pemetrexed-based chemotherapy: The PEMVITASTART randomized trial.
Vitamin B12 and folic acid (FA) supplementation (B12-FAS) reduces hematologic toxicity with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy (PEM). However, the basis for recommending 1 week of B12-FAS before PEM initi...
Folic acid supplementation prevents 50 - 75% of cases of neural tube defects. This study evaluated the folic acid supplementation after oral administration of the ethinyl estradiol 0.02 mg + levonor...
A new fundamental concept for one-step in-situ functionalization of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with folic acid using hydrothermal treatment is described. Hydrothermal treatment has been tuned to increa...
Inflammatory bowel disease often requires immunomodulators, such as methotrexate, to maintain disease remission. This medication is administered as one dose weekly. Methotrexate can cause ...
The treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been aimed at decreasing mortality and morbidity because the etiology of the disease is unknown. The general aim of this multicentre...
The purpose of the study is to determine the bioavailability of orally administered folic acid compared with the i.v. administered folic acid, and to use the samples collected to validate ...
The purpose of the study is to determine the bioequivalence of Norgestimate (NGM) and Ethinyl Estradiol (EE) in 2 formulations of 250 mcg NGM/25 mcg EE, 1 without folic acid and 1 containi...
High levels of homocysteine, which is an amino acid in the blood, have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease. This study will examine the effect that differing levels of folic ...
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as its calcium salt as an antidote to folic acid antagonists which block the conversion of folic acid to folinic acid.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 18.104.22.168.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and transport FOLIC ACID, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and a variety of folic acid derivatives. The receptors are essential for normal NEURAL TUBE development and transport folic acid via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Derivatives of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid). In gamma-glutamyl linkage they are found in many tissues. They are converted to folic acid by the action of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase or synthesized from folic acid by the action of folate polyglutamate synthetase. Synthetic pteroylpolyglutamic acids, which are in alpha-glutamyl linkage, are active in bacterial growth assays.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...
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