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Consumer-level 3D printers emit ultrafine and fine particles, though little is known about their chemical composition or potential toxicity. We report on chemical characteristics of the particles in comparison to raw filaments, and assessments of particle toxicity. Particles emitted from polylactic acid (PLA) appeared to be largely composed of the bulk filament material with mass spectra similar to the PLA monomer spectra. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), extruded at a higher temperature than PLA, emitted vastly more particles and their composition differed from that of the bulk filament, suggesting that trace additives may control particle formation. cellular assays and mice exposure all showed toxic responses when exposed to PLA and ABS-emitted particles, where PLA-emitted particles elicited higher response levels than ABS-emitted particles at comparable mass doses. A chemical assay widely used in ambient air-quality studies showed particles from various filament materials had comparable particle oxidative potentials, slightly lower than those of ambient particulate matter (PM). However, particle emissions from ABS filaments are likely more detrimental when considering overall exposure due to much higher emissions. Our results suggest that 3D printer particle emissions are not benign and exposures should be minimized.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
Aeration tanks in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as sources of bioaerosols, often containing particles and microbes. In this study, intestinal bacteria were investigated fr...
In a context where a significant fraction of the population lives near industrial areas, the main objectives of this study are to provide (a) new data on PM chemical compositions, heavy-metal concentr...
Ultrasonic humidifier use is a potential source of human exposure to inhalable particulates. This research evaluated the behavior of insoluble iron oxide and aluminum oxide particles in water used to ...
Rhizospheric and plant root associated microbes generally play a protective role against arsenic toxicity in rhizosphere. Rhizospheric microbial interaction influences arsenic (As) detoxification/mobi...
As a major source of fine particles, open biomass burning can affect climate and the hydrological cycle via the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their deposition. This study investigat...
Background: - In a lifetime, a person may encounter tens of thousands of chemicals used as ingredients in the products they buy. It s not easy to measure them because the companies that...
The specific aims of the project are: 1) to test the effectiveness of consumer-directed financial incentives paired with provider-directed financial incentives, compared to provider-direct...
The main purpose of this study is to update the pulmonary retention values of non-fibrous mineral particles in the general population. This study will provide reference values for the int...
The primary goal of the study is to see if the PET/CT will be able to determine the precise location of the Y-90 particles within the liver and within the tumors. We hope to use this infor...
This study seeks to determine what price consumers are willing to pay for a sunscreen product containing their ideal combination of attributes or qualities. This study will assess consumer...
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...
An assay is an analytic procedure for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity. This can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample. ...