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Potable reuse facilities must be designed and operated to minimize the presence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and other trace organics in the product water. Reverse osmosis (RO) is incorporated into the process train of many potable reuse facilities and has been demonstrated to achieve excellent removal of many, but not all, organic compounds. Organics that may be poorly removed by RO include low-molecular weight (MW) neutral compounds. This laboratory study examined the rejection of 73 low-MW neutral organics through a commercial RO membrane that is commonly used in potable reuse applications. The organics were selected using a reductionist approach so that the effect of individual functional groups on rejection could be ascertained. The research demonstrated that halogens, carbonyl functional groups, C═C double bonds, and aromaticity decrease rejection, that methyl and hydroxyl functional groups increase rejection, and that the position of functional groups in structural isomers has a significant effect on rejection. The results help explain the discrepancies and inconsistencies in RO rejection of neutral organics that are observed when considered from the conventional perspective of molecular size and hydrophobicity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
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Field of chemistry pertaining to the study of inorganic compounds or ions and their interactions with biological ligands at the molecular level.
A chemistry-based technology in which sets of reactions, for solution or solid-phase synthesis, are used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.