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Implantable bioelectronics represent an emerging technology that can be integrated into the human body for diagnostic and therapeutic functions. Power supply devices are an essential component of bioelectronics to ensure their robust performance. However, conventional power sources are usually bulky, rigid, and potentially contain hazardous constituent materials. The fact that biological organisms are soft, curvilinear, and have limited accommodation space poses new challenges for power supply systems to minimize the interface mismatch and still offer sufficient power to meet clinical-grade applications. Here, recent advances in state-of-the-art nonconventional power options for implantable electronics, specifically, miniaturized, flexible, or biodegradable power systems are reviewed. Material strategies and architectural design of a broad array of power devices are discussed, including energy storage systems (batteries and supercapacitors), power devices which harvest sources from the human body (biofuel cells, devices utilizing biopotentials, piezoelectric harvesters, triboelectric devices, and thermoelectric devices), and energy transfer devices which utilize sources in the surrounding environment (ultrasonic energy harvesters, inductive coupling/radiofrequency energy harvesters, and photovoltaic devices). Finally, future challenges and perspectives are given.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)
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