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Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, which is one of the most promising cancer therapies, is licensed for treating various tumors. PD-L1, which is expressed on the surface of cancer cells, leads to the inhibition of T lymphocyte activation and immune evasion if it binds to the receptor PD-1 on cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies inhibit interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 to restore antitumor immunity. Although certain patients achieve effective responses to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, the efficacy of treatment is highly variable. Clinical trials of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy combined with radiotherapy/chemotherapy are underway with suggestive evidence of favorable outcome; however, the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Among several molecular targets which can influence the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, PD-L1 expression in tumors is considered to be a critical biomarker because there is a positive correlation between the efficacy of combined treatment protocols and PD-L1 expression levels. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of PD-L1 expression in cancer cells, particularly the mechanism of PD-L1 expression following DNA damage, is important. In this review, we consider recent findings on the regulation of PD-L1 expression in response to DNA damage signaling in cancer cells.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cancer science
Expression of tumor suppressor p53 is regulated at multiple levels, disruption of which often leads to cancer. We have adopted an approach combining computational systems modeling with experimental va...
The serine/threonine kinase, CHK2 (checkpoint kinase 2), is a key mediator in DNA damage response and a tumor suppressor, which is implicated in promoting cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. ...
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BRCA1 (breast cancer 1) protein is involved in the genome stability maintenance participating in homologous recombination-dependent DNA repair. Disruption of BRCA1 functioning is associated with breas...
DNA damage response (DDR) serves as an integrated cellular network to detect cellular stress and react by activating pathways responsible for halting cell cycle progression, stimulating DNA damage rep...
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To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of cell therapy using DC-PNAT/PMAT cells to treat Advanced Gastric Cancer. Eligibility: Individuals greater than or equal to 18 years of ag...
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
The response of cells in sensing a difference in OSMOTIC PRESSURE between the inside and outside of the cell. This response includes signaling from osmotic sensors to activate transcription factors, which in turn regulate the expression of osmocompensatory genes, all functioning to maintain CELL VOLUME and the water concentration inside the cells.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.
Metal devices for fastening together two or more parts of dental prostheses for stabilizing or retaining them by attachment to abutment teeth. For a precision attachment for a partial denture DENTURE PRECISION ATTACHMENT is available.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...