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In 1977, plastination was unveiled, which replaced tissue fluid with a curable polymer. Today preservation via plastination of various animal and plant tissues, organs, and whole bodies is an extremely useful technique to display such and help educate vast arrays of both allied science students and the lay public across the planet. The diversity of applications of plastination techniques seems to be without limits. In fact, the only real limitation to plastination is one's imagination! The size of plastinates during the early years of plastination was comparatively small and dictated primarily by the size of the available plastination kettle/chamber, 35 L Heidelberg plastination kettle (49 cm H × 34.5 cm diam.). In the 1990s larger chambers were designed and slowly became available:150-210 cm (long) × 65-80 cm (wide) and 83-92 cm (high). Today a few large vacuum chambers are in service which will accommodate whole bodies of man and domestic or exotic animals. Today, at least two gigantic chambers are available to impregnate massive specimens. These are 3.5 m × 2 m × 1.5 m (Dalian) and 4 m × 3 m × 2.2 m (Guben). Also, the need for larger quantities of acetone and impregnation mix, not to mention the great increase in specimen preparation time, makes this a major investment. The "cold temperature process" is used to impregnate these massive creations. The room temperature technique could be used. The same four plastination steps are necessary for larger and massive specimens. Besides their tremendous size, the slippery silicone polymer is a reckoning force.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
With classical sheet plastination techniques such as E12, the level and thickness of the freeze-cut sections decide on what is visible in the final sheet plastinated sections. However, there are other...
Protein therapeutic exposure to siliconized surfaces during manufacturing and storage has potential to induce protein aggregation or generate protein-silicone complexes that are potentially immunogeni...
We aimed to evaluate the quantity and quality of current evidence concerning the outcomes of use of plastinated specimens in anatomy education.
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We report a case of vulvar silicone granulomas following injection of liquid silicone into the labia. The patient is a 51-yr-old female who presented with vulvar pain and enlarged, indurated labia maj...
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To determine whether silicone gel is effective at preventing or minimizing scar formation after eyelid surgery.
To compare, through a randomized, multicenter surgical trial, the postoperative tamponade effectiveness of intraocular silicone oil with that of an intraocular long-acting gas (initially s...
The aim of the study is, primarily, evaluate the safety of the use of the silicone stent HCPA-1 in patients with clinically significant tracheal and/or bronchial stenosis. Secondarily, thi...
Silicone gel is a self-drying silicone polymer that forms thin film after application onto the skin. Because silicone film is a medical device, silicone gel is also regarded as a medical d...
Synthetic organosiloxane gels that are formed from synthetic polymers of silicone oxide with organic sidechains (polydimethylsiloxane) by lengthening the polymer chains. Unlike silicone elastomers, they are not treated with amorphous silica. They are used as fillers in breast implants.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.
Methods of preparing tissue specimens for visualization using an electron microscope, usually a scanning electron microscope. The methods involve the creation of exact copies of the specimens by making a mold or cast (i.e., replica) of the specimen.
A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.