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The few studies on the association of smoking with gallbladder cancer risk have given conflicting results. Here we provide the most accurate and up-to-date quantification of the effect of cigarette smoking on gallbladder cancer risk, and investigate for the first time the dose-response relationships. Using an innovative approach for the identification of publications, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies published until March 2019 on the association of smoking with gallbladder cancer risk. Pooled relative risks (RR) for smoking were estimated using random-effects models; one-stage random-effects log-linear models were used for dose-response relationships. Out of 22 eligible articles, 20 (11 case-control and 9 cohort studies) were included in the meta-analysis, for a total of 4676 gallbladder cancer cases. Compared to never smokers, the pooled RR was 1.33 (95% confidence interval,
1.17-1.51) for current and 1.07 (95%
0.94-1.23) for former smokers. The risk of gallbladder cancer increased linearly with smoking intensity and duration, the RR being 1.60 (95%
1.21-2.11) for 30 cigarettes/day and 1.25 (95%
1.01-1.56) for 30 years of smoking. There was a non-significant linear decrease in gallbladder cancer risk with increasing time since quitting, compared to current smokers. Former smokers reached the risk of those who had never smoked 20 years after quitting. This comprehensive meta-analysis suggests a moderately but significantly higher risk of gallbladder cancer for current but not former smokers. We also provide the first report of a linear increase in gallbladder cancer risk according to smoking intensity and duration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of cancer
Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) adversely affects quality of life. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of recurrence and may exacerbate FCR among survivors who smoke. FCR also may motivate quitting, ...
Gallbladder cancer is the most common biliary tract malignancy and not sensitive to chemotherapy. Autophagy is an important factor prolonging the survival of cancer cells under chemotherapeutic stress...
Previous studies have shown that continued smoking among patients with cancer can increase overall and cancer-specific mortality, risk for second primary cancer, and risk for toxic effects of cancer t...
Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of death from cancer worldwide. Smoking induces and aggravates many health problems, including vascular diseases, respiratory illnesses and cancers. Tobacc...
In recent years, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in pathophysiological processes underlying gallbladder cancer. A microarray analysis identified that ...
In the United States, the incidence of biliary tract cancer and gallbladder cancer has been estimated to be 6,000-8,000 patients per year. Currently, there is no standard therapy for thes...
This trial is a prospective study, the main purpose of the study is to investigate the association between benign gallbladder disease and gallbladder carcinoma; to explain the timing of in...
The extent of hepatic resection for gallbladder cancer can be done from a wedge resection to 4b/5 bisegmentectomy. This study aims to compare the recurrence rates and survival rates betwee...
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is widely used in the gallbladder stone, gallbladder polyp, gallbladder cancer and other diseases. Some of the patients would develop diarrhea after surge...
Background: The gallbladder is a small organ below the liver. Gallbladder cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in Chile. Chile also has among the highest rates of gallbla...
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
A deoxycytidine derivative and fluorouracil PRODRUG that is used as an ANTINEOPLASTIC ANTIMETABOLITE in the treatment of COLON CANCER; BREAST CANCER and GASTRIC CANCER.
That portion of the stomach remaining after gastric surgery, usually gastrectomy or gastroenterostomy for cancer of the stomach or peptic ulcer. It is a common site of cancer referred to as stump cancer or carcinoma of the gastric stump.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 18q21-qter region of human chromosome 18. The absence of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (DCC stands for deleted in colorectal cancer). The products of these genes show significant homology to neural cell adhesion molecules and other related cell surface glycoproteins.
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...