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The increasing occurrence of obesity has become a significant public health concern. Obese individuals have higher prevalence of heart disease, stroke, osteoarthritis, diabetes, and reproductive disorders. Reproductive problems include menstrual irregularities, pregnancy complications, and infertility due to anovulation, in women, and lower testosterone and diminished sperm count, in men. In particular, obese women have reduced levels of both gonadotropin hormones and, in obese men, lower testosterone is accompanied by diminished luteinizing hormone. Together these findings indicate central dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, specifically at the level of the GnRH neuron function, which is the final brain output for the regulation of reproduction. Obesity is a state of hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and chronic inflammation. Herein, we review recent advances in our understanding of how these metabolic and immune changes affect hypothalamic function and regulation of GnRH neuron. In the latter part, we focus on neuroinflammation as a major consequence of obesity, and discuss findings that reveal that GnRH neurons are uniquely positioned to respond to inflammatory changes.
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The association between obesity and infertility has gained increasing provider and public awareness. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent research into the pathophysiology regarding obe...
Obesity prevalence, particularly in children and young adults, is perilously increasing worldwide foreseeing serious negative health impacts in the future to come. Obesity is linked to impaired male g...
Over the past three decades, the increasing rates of obesity have led to an alarming obesity epidemic worldwide. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases; thus, it is es...
Evidences from human and animal studies suggest that reproductive function may be affected by mercury. The aim of this review was to explore the mercury influence on human fertility.
For women of reproductive age, overweight and obesity are an established risk factor for several medical complications. To address the increasing rate of obesity in India through public health awarene...
the investigators make the following assumptions: 1) neuroinflammation in MDD can be measured by the [18 F ] DPA- 714 ; 2) it is accompanied by anatomical and functional changes in the fro...
In this research, the study team will use brain imaging to evaluate the presence of neuroinflammation in the brains and spinal cords of patients with low back pain, and whether CBD effects...
Neuroinflammation is increasingly implicated as a potential critical pathogenic mechanism in a variety of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This study will use hybrid PET/MRI imaging t...
Excess maternal weight, especially obesity, influences almost every aspect of fertility, from conception to problems during pregnancy. The investigators will use novel statistical methods ...
The primary objective of this substudy is to measure the concentration and the regional brain distribution of activated brain microglia/macrophages using the PET ligand [18F]DPA-714 in par...
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Organizations representing designated geographic areas which have contracts under the PRO program to review the medical necessity, appropriateness, quality, and cost-effectiveness of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. Peer Review Improvement Act, PL 97-248, 1982.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
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Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...
Obesity is the condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body (mostly in subcutaneous tissues). clinical obesity is considered to be present when a person has a BMI of over 30 (Oxford Dictionary of Medicine). It is becoming increasing common i...