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Fungi are notoriously prolific producers of secondary metabolites including nonribosomal peptides (NRPs). The structural complexity of NRPs grants them interesting activities such as antibiotic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. The discovery of these compounds with attractive activities can be achieved by using two approaches: either by screening samples originating from various environments for their biological activities, or by identifying the related clusters in genomic sequences thanks to bioinformatics tools. This genome mining approach has grown tremendously due to recent advances in genome sequencing, which have provided an incredible amount of genomic data from hundreds of microbial species. Regarding fungal organisms, the genomic data have revealed the presence of an unexpected number of putative NRP-related gene clusters. This highlights fungi as a goldmine for the discovery of putative novel bioactive compounds. Recent development of NRP dedicated bioinformatics tools have increased the capacity to identify these gene clusters and to deduce NRPs structures, speeding-up the screening process for novel metabolites discovery. Unfortunately, the newly identified compound is frequently not or poorly produced by native producers due to a lack of expression of the related genes cluster. A frequently employed strategy to increase production rates consists in transferring the related biosynthetic pathway in heterologous hosts. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview about the topic of NRPs discovery, from gene cluster identification by genome mining to the heterologous production in fungal hosts. The main computational tools and methods for genome mining are herein presented with an emphasis on the particularities of the fungal systems. The different steps of the reconstitution of NRP biosynthetic pathway in heterologous fungal cell factories will be discussed, as well as the key factors to consider for maximizing productivity. Several examples will be developed to illustrate the potential of heterologous production to both discover uncharacterized novel compounds predicted in silico by genome mining, and to enhance the productivity of interesting bio-active natural products.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biotechnology advances
Ribosomally synthesized post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a diverse class of biologically active molecules produced by many environmental bacteria. While thousands of these compounds ...
Single-module nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and NRPS-like enzymes activate and transform carboxylic acids in both primary and secondary metabolism; and are of great interests due to their b...
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The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
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