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In the present study, stable sodium plating/stripping has been achieved on bare aluminium current collector, without any surface modifications or artificial SEI deposition. The crucial role of pre-deposited sodium using cyclic voltammetry on bare aluminium as a matrix for plating/stripping has been highlighted using different protocols for cycling. The pre-deposition strategy ensures stable and efficient cycling of sodium in anode-free sodium batteries without dendritic formations. The study highlights the difference of sodium plating/stripping in carbonate and glyme solvent electrolytes on the bare aluminium current collector. Contrary to the carbonate solvent electrolyte, cell with tetraglyme solvent electrolyte and sodium loading of 1 mAh/cm2 has overpotential under 20 mV during the sodium plating/stripping cycles at 0.5 mA/cm2 for a testing period of 650 hrs. Overpotentials under 40 and 100 mV have been achieved at current densities up to 1 and 2 mA/cm2 for loadings up to 5 and 10 mAh/cm2 respectively for testing time up to 1500 hrs. DFT simulations have been performed to obtain the solvation energies, and the HOMO-LUMO band gap of the solvent-sodium ion complexes for the glyme solvent electrolytes and their trends have been correlated with the experimental observations.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS applied materials & interfaces
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Work consisting of a formal report giving details of the investigation and results of a medical or other scientific problem. When issued by a government agency or comparable official body, its contents may be classified, unclassified, or declassified with regard to security clearance. This publication type may also cover a scientific paper or article that records the current state or current position of scientific research and development. If so labeled by the editor or publisher, this publication type may be properly used for journal articles.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
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