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In humans, cancer-associated cachexia is a complex syndrome that reduces the overall quality of life and survival of cancer patients, particularly for those undergoing chemotherapy. The most easily observable sign of cachexia is organ wasting, the dramatic loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue mass. Estimates suggest that 80% of patients in advanced stages of cancer show signs of the syndrome and about 20% of cancer patients die directly of cachexia. Because there is no treatment or drug available to ameliorate organ wasting induced by cancer, cachexia is a relevant clinical problem. However, it is unclear how cachexia is mediated, what factors drive interactions between tumors and host tissues, and which markers of cachexia might be used to allow early detection before the observable signs of organ wasting. In this chapter, we review the current mammalian models of cachexia and the need to use new models of study. We also explain recent developments in Drosophila as a model for studying organ wasting induced by tumors and how fly studies can help unravel important mechanisms that drive cachexia. In particular, we discuss what lessons have been learned from tumor models recently reported to induce systemic organ wasting in Drosophila.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Advances in experimental medicine and biology
The resurgence of Drosophila as a recognized model for carcinogenesis has contributed greatly to our conceptual advance and mechanistic understanding of tumor growth in vivo. With its powerful genetic...
Cancer is a cumulative manifestation of several complicated disease states that affect multiple organs. Over the last few decades, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, has become a successful model ...
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ramaekers et al. (2019) show that changes in eyeless/Pax6 expression cause differences in compound eye size within and between Drosophila species. These findings ...
Since the first animal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were discovered in insects, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful model for their characterization. Drosophila AMPs have been used exte...
Cancer development originates in a single mutant cell transformed from a normal cell, including further evolution of pro-tumor cells through additional mutations into malignant cancer tissues. Data fr...
Allergy is a very common problem and can be a handicap in everyday life, specially when symptoms occur at work place. Some persons working with drosophila developed respiratory symptoms. I...
While a number of factors are known to be associated with the development of trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC), inflammation, and multi-organ failure, we currently cannot predict which pat...
To allow patients with HIV-associated wasting to receive thalidomide treatment at 1 of 2 doses. To gain safety and efficacy data from a broader base of patients with HIV-associated wasting...
The purpose of this study is to see if giving nandrolone decanoate (a hormonal drug) will cause weight gain in HIV-positive women who have HIV-associated weight loss (wasting). Wasting ha...
The study is a 6 month, placebo-controlled study of transdermal testosterone for women with HIV-associated weight loss. Women with AIDS wasting have been found to have low testosterone le...
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
Arthritis Fibromyalgia Gout Lupus Rheumatic Rheumatology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and management of disease involving joints, tendons, muscles, ligaments and associated structures (Oxford Medical Diction...