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Progesterone (P4) has controversial physiological effects on the regulation of the lactotroph population. While some studies have shown a negative role for P4 in prolactin secretion and lactotroph proliferation, antagonizing estradiol effects, others demonstrated a proliferative role of P4 at the pituitary level. Usually, progesterone actions in the pituitary gland were studied through their classical, genomic pathways triggered by nuclear progesterone receptors (nPRs). However, in 2003, the scene became more complex with the discovery of another group of progesterone receptors involved in rapid, non-genomic P4 effects: the membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs), which are members of the progesterone and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) family. This review examines the historical background and current data on the study of progesterone actions on PRL secretion providing new evidence of P4 effects at the hypothalamic and at the pituitary level through non-classic P4-receptors. In addition, we explore the role of progesterone in the development of experimental prolactinomas, a controversial topic in the literature.
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The relationship between elevated prolactin and infertility has been known for a long time, but the specific mechanism by which prolactin inhibited reproduction had been uncertain. The discovery of ki...
The association between prolactin level variation and prolactinoma size reduction remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prolactin level cut-off predictive of a tumor size reduction.
A phase 1 clinical trial in healthy male volunteers was conducted with a somatostatin-dopamine chimera (BIM23B065), from which information could be obtained on the concentration-effect relationship of...
In pigs, plasma prolactin concentration markedly changes during the estrous cycle and the regulation of its secretion is very complex. The contribution of neurokinins in this process has not been suff...
Aripiprazole treatment in schizophrenic patients was previously associated to lower or normalized prolactin levels. Genetic variants in cytochrome P450 (CYP) (CYP2D6), dopamine receptor (DRD2, DRD3) a...
The aim of this study is to investigate whether inhibition of serum prolactin levels below normal range during cabergoline administration may reduce the recurrence rate after drug withdraw...
the study aim to investigate the endocrine remission rate of non-invasive prolactinoma between transsphenoidal surgery treatment and Dopamine agonist treatment.
The purpose of the study is to assess the safety and determine the effects of the hormone prolactin on lactation (breast milk production).
The purpose of this study is to show that amantadine might help to reduce the side effect of the medications which are prescribed to treat schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. High l...
This study aims to investigate if endoscopic trans-sphenoidal prolactinoma resection as a first line treatment, or as an equally valid second line treatment after a short (4-6 months) or l...
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Disorders Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several g...
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...