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Refractive errors are the product of a mismatch between the axial length of the eye and its optical power, creating blurred vision. Uncorrected refractive errors are the second leading cause of worldwide blindness. One refractive error currently attracting significant scientific interest is myopia, mostly owing to the recent rise in its prevalence worldwide and associated ocular disease burden. This increase in myopia prevalence has also been rapid, suggesting environmental influences in addition to any genetic influences on eye growth. This review defines refractive errors, describes their prevalence, and presents evidence for the influence of genetic and environmental factors related to refractive error development.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of vision science
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Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.
Surgical procedures employed to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS such as MYOPIA; HYPEROPIA; or ASTIGMATISM. These may involve altering the curvature of the CORNEA; removal or replacement of the CRYSTALLINE LENS; or modification of the SCLERA to change the axial length of the eye.
Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.
A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.