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Pentafluoropyridine, a potentially useful precursor in organofluorine methodology, undergoes selective substitution of a fluorine with a phenoxide at the site para to the nitrogen. Subsequent aryloxide substitutions can be accomplished at the ortho positions with aryloxide groups containing various functional groups para to the phenoxide oxygen. During this phase of the reaction, "reverse reactions" involving substitutions of the original para substituent with a free fluoride or with another aryloxide moiety are observed with a frequency that depends on the functional group para to the oxy-gen on the aryloxide. Herein, we provide a theoretical explanation of these observations through use of density functional theory.
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We describe a Pd-catalyzed selective C-H arylation reaction of phenylacetaldehydes using l-valine as the transient directing group. This process showed a broad substrate scope and excellent selectivit...
Controlling site-selectivity of C-H activation without using a directing group remains a significant challenge. While Pd(Ⅱ) catalysts modulated by a mutually repulsive pyridine type ligands have bee...
We evaluated thiourea organocatalysts that incorporate a chiral group which includes a trifluoromethyl moiety and contrasted their performance with non-fluorinated analogs. The comparison between such...
Threonine synthase catalyzes the conversion of O-phospho-L-homoserine and a water molecule to L-threonine and has the most complex catalytic mechanism among the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme...
Palladium-catalyzed site-selective dearomative C2-arylation of 2,5-diaryl-1-pyrroles with aryl chlorides was accomplished, and a series of 2,2,5-triaryl-2-pyrroles were synthesized. In addition, the s...
We hypothesize that b2 adrenergic polymorphisms affect b-receptor selectivity in patients with heart failure treated with either a b1-selective or a b-nonselective agent. b-2 polymorphisms...
Diaphragm ultrasound non-invasively explores the diaphragm function and it can be useful in several clinical situations. Diaphragm ultrasound is able to evaluate the cranio-caudal displace...
This single subject study tested the effectiveness of the Just Right Challenge Food Club for decreasing food selectivity and increasing mealtime qualify for children with developmental dis...
The aim of this study is to determine whether an explanation to parents for the need for post-partum influenza vaccination will influence their compliance.
An anal fistula is an abnormal communication between the luminal surface of the anorectal canal and the perianal skin. Fistulas can vary in their complexity and can be challenging to treat...
Adverse reactions that occur initially at the site of injection or infusion. Milder type is confined to a local allergic flare reaction. A more severe reaction is caused by extravasation of VESICANTS from the blood vessel at the site of injection and can cause damage to the surrounding tissue. In tumor flare reaction symptoms involve well beyond the injection site such as an increase in the tumor size and tumor markers levels, bone pain, and HYPERCALCEMIA.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
A reaction characterized by a violet color upon the addition of copper sulfate to all compounds with two amide or peptide bonds linked directly or through an intermediate carbon atom. Used in the detection and estimation of proteins and peptides having more than two amino acids.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.