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Phthalates have been reported to affect the function and growth of thyroid. However, there is little data on the effect of phthalates on thyroid oncogenesis. Here we explored the associations between phthalates exposure and the risks of thyroid cancer and benign nodule. We sex-matched 144 thyroid cancer, 138 benign nodule patients and 144 healthy adults from Wuhan, China. Eight phthalate metabolites in spot urine samples were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of creatinine-corrected urinary phthalate metabolites with the risks of thyroid cancer and benign nodule were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. We found that urinary monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono(2-ethyl-5hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) associated with increased risks of thyroid cancer and nodule, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.74 to 4.78 comparing the extreme tertiles, and urinary monobutyl phthalate (MBP) was associated with decreased risks of thyroid cancer and benign nodule (all P for trends < 0.05). Male-specific positive associations of urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) with thyroid cancer and nodule as well as urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) with thyroid cancer were also observed. Our results suggest that exposure to certain phthalates may contribute to increased risks of thyroid cancer and benign nodule.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of hazardous materials
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An aggressive THYROID GLAND malignancy which generally occurs in IODINE-deficient areas in people with previous thyroid pathology such as GOITER. It is associated with CELL DEDIFFERENTIATION of THYROID CARCINOMA (e.g., FOLLICULAR THYROID CARCINOMA; PAPILLARY THYROID CANCER). Typical initial presentation is a rapidly growing neck mass which upon metastasis is associated with DYSPHAGIA; NECK PAIN; bone pain; DYSPNEA; and NEUROLOGIC DEFICITS.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A homeobox protein and transcription factor that localizes to the cell nucleus where it activates expression of thyroid specific genes such as THYROGLOBULIN and the THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR. It is critical for maintaining thyroid tissue in a differentiated state and also plays a role in lung development. Mutations in the NKX2-1 gene are associated with CHOREA, BENIGN HEREDITARY.
A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).
A factor associated with the well-being of living organisms that is used as a measure of environmental change and or influence. For example, aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in earthworm tissue is used as an indication of heavy metal pollution in soils. Distinguish from BIOMARKERS.
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