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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating joint disease characterized by chronic inflammation, pathologic alteration of fibroblast‑like synoviocytes (FLS), destruction of cartilage and bone, and the formation of an invasive pannus. RA‑FLS exhibit increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. The retinoid X receptor (RXR) has a role in regulating cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis, and agonism of RXR has been investigated as a treatment strategy in several types of cancer. However, there is little research on the effects of RXR agonism in other diseases. Bexarotene is a novel selective RXR ligand used in the treatment of T‑cell lymphoma. In the present study, bexarotene was used to investigate the involvement of RXR in tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α)‑induced RA conditions in human FLS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that RXR has been demonstrated to be expressed in FLS and to be downregulated in response to TNF‑α stimulation. The present study also demonstrated that bexarotene exerted an anti‑inflammatory effect by downregulating expression of interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1, and high mobility group box‑1. Notably, bexarotene also rescued the TNF‑α‑induced downregulation of the anti‑inflammatory cytokines IL‑4 and transforming growth factor‑β1. Bexarotene treatment exhibited a potential protective effect against cartilage degradation by downregulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑1, MMP‑3 and MMP‑13. In addition, the present results demonstrated that the effects of bexarotene were mediated through the p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase/nuclear factor‑κB pathway, via inhibition of p38 protein and the inhibitor α of κB phosphorylation. Taken together, the present findings demonstrated the potential of RXR agonism using bexarotene as a treatment against the development and progression of RA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of molecular medicine
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A recombinant version of soluble human TNF receptor that binds specifically to TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR and inhibits its binding with endogenous TNF receptors. It prevents the inflammatory effect of TNF and is used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS and ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS.
A fusion protein immunoconjugate of the extracellular domain of CTLA4 and the Fc domain of human IgG1. It functions as a T-cell co-stimulation blocker that inhibits TNF-ALPHA and prevents the activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is used in the treatment of RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Arthritis in children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
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