Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Influenza A viruses of H5 and H7 subtype in poultry can circulate subclinically, and subsequently mutate from low to high pathogenicity with potentially devastating economic and welfare consequences. European Union Member States undertake surveillance of commercial and backyard poultry for early detection and control of subclinical H5 and H7 influenza A infection. This surveillance has moved towards a risk-based sampling approach in recent years; however quantitative measures of relative risk associated with risk factors utilised in this approach are necessary for optimisation. This study describes serosurveillance for H5 and H7 influenza A in domestic and commercial poultry undertaken in the European Union from 2004 to 2010, where a random sampling and thus representative approach to serosurveillance was undertaken. Using these representative data, this study measured relative risk of seropositivity across poultry categories and spatially across the EU. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Domestic waterfowl, game birds, fattening turkeys, ratites, backyard poultry and the "other" poultry category holdings had relatively increased probability of H5 and/or H7 influenza A seropositivity, compared to laying-hen holdings. Amongst laying-hen holdings, free-range rearing was associated with increased probability of H7 seropositivity. Spatial analyses detected 'hotspots' for H5 influenza A seropositivity in western France and England, and H7 influenza A seropositivity in Italy and Belgium, which may be explained by the demographics and distribution of poultry categories. Findings suggest certain poultry category holdings are at increased risk of subclinical H5 and/or H7 influenza A circulation, and free-range rearing increases the likelihood of exposure to H7 influenza A. These findings may be used in further refining risk-based surveillance strategies, and prioritising management strategies in influenza A outbreaks.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Transboundary and emerging diseases
Reliable exposure information is crucial for assessing health outcomes of influenza infection and vaccination. Current serological methods are unable to distinguish between anti-hemagglutinin (HA) ant...
Influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is usually performed using outpatient data, and information on the surveillance of patients hospitalised for ILI, which is critical for the complete assessmen...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory infection is a common cause for hospitalization and hospital deaths in young children globally. There is urgent need to generate ev...
In Europe, the enhanced safety surveillance (ESS) of seasonal influenza vaccines is mandatory, in order to detect any potential increase in reactogenicity when the vaccine composition is updated. The ...
Baloxavir marboxil is a novel endonuclease inhibitor licensed for treatment of otherwise healthy or high-risk individuals infected with influenza. Viruses with reduced baloxavir susceptibility due to ...
The purpose of this study is to comply with the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidance on enhanced safety surveillance for seasonal influenza vaccines in the European Union (EU) and aims...
Seasonal influenza virus causes an estimated 0.3-0.6 million deaths per year. Avian influenza virus H5N1, H7N9 and H5N6 has fatality rate of over 30%. Swine influenza viruses from pigs hav...
The purpose of the study on the Prevention of Influenza and Other Wintertime Respiratory Viruses among Healthcare Professionals in Israel Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccine in Preventing I...
This study plans to conduct enhanced influenza surveillance at a hospital emergency department level independent of underlying influenza-like symptoms.
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus arrived in the Middle East in 2005 and has since established itself in local domestic birds and is now considered endemic in several...
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS that is highly virulent in poultry and wild birds, but shows varying degrees of pathogenicity in mice. The H5N8 virus subtype has a polybasic amino acid motif at the HA cleavage site which explains its pathogenicity in birds, and expresses surface proteins HEMAGGLUTININ 5 and NEURAMINIDASE 8 which are typical of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza viruses.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed or attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Alternative Medicine Cleft Palate Complementary & Alternative Medicine Congenital Diseases Dentistry Ear Nose & Throat Food Safety Geriatrics Healthcare Hearing Medical Devices MRSA Muscular Dyst...
Influenza or 'flu' is a respiratory illness associated with infection by influenza virus. Symptoms frequently include headache, fever, cough, sore throat, aching muscles and joints. There is a wide spectrum of severity of illness ranging from min...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...