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With the introduction of multi-camera systems in modern plant phenotyping new opportunities for combined multimodal image analysis emerge. Visible light (VIS), fluorescence (FLU) and near-infrared images enable scientists to study different plant traits based on optical appearance, biochemical composition and nutrition status. A straightforward analysis of high-throughput image data is hampered by a number of natural and technical factors including large variability of plant appearance, inhomogeneous illumination, shadows and reflections in the background regions. Consequently, automated segmentation of plant images represents a big challenge and often requires an extensive human-machine interaction. Combined analysis of different image modalities may enable automatisation of plant segmentation in "difficult" image modalities such as VIS images by utilising the results of segmentation of image modalities that exhibit higher contrast between plant and background, i.e. FLU images. For efficient segmentation and detection of diverse plant structures (i.e. leaf tips, flowers), image registration techniques based on feature point (FP) matching are of particular interest. However, finding reliable feature points and point pairs for differently structured plant species in multimodal images can be challenging. To address this task in a general manner, different feature point detectors should be considered. Here, a comparison of seven different feature point detectors for automated registration of VIS and FLU plant images is performed. Our experimental results show that straightforward image registration using FP detectors is prone to errors due to too large structural difference between FLU and VIS modalities. We show that structural image enhancement such as background filtering and edge image transformation significantly improves performance of FP algorithms. To overcome the limitations of single FP detectors, combination of different FP methods is suggested. We demonstrate application of our enhanced FP approach for automated registration of a large amount of FLU/VIS images of developing plant species acquired from high-throughput phenotyping experiments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
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