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In competitive situations, winning depends on selecting actions that surprise the opponent. Such unpredictable action can be generated based on representations of the opponent's strategy and choice history (model-based counter-prediction) or by choosing actions in a memory-free, stochastic manner. Across five different experiments using a variant of a matching-pennies game with simulated and human opponents we found that people toggle between these two strategies, using model-based selection when recent wins signal the appropriateness of the current model, but reverting to stochastic selection following losses. Also, after wins, feedback-related, mid-frontal EEG activity reflected information about the opponent's global and local strategy, and predicted upcoming choices. After losses, this activity was nearly absent-indicating that the internal model is suppressed after negative feedback. We suggest that the mixed-strategy approach allows negotiating two conflicting goals: (1) exploiting the opponent's deviations from randomness while (2) remaining unpredictable for the opponent.
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Phylogenetic analysis is complicated by interspecific gene flow and the presence of shared ancestral polymorphisms, particularly those maintained by balancing selection. In this study, we aimed to exa...
Gynodioecy is a sexual system where females and hermaphrodites co-occur. In most gynodioecious angiosperms, sex is determined by an interaction between mitochondrial male-sterility genes (CMS) that ar...
Predictions of upcoming movements are based on several types of neural signals that span the visual, somatosensory, motor and cognitive system. Thus far, pre-movement signals have been investigated wh...
We implemented multilocus selection in a spatially-explicit, individual-based framework that enables multivariate environmental gradients to drive selection in many loci as a new module for the landsc...
Tadalafil displays important neuroprotective effects in experimental models of neurodegenerative diseases, however its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was t...
After stroke, individuals often have persistent difficulty using the arm and hand in everyday functional tasks that reduces quality of life. Currently available rehabilitation techniques a...
This study is to investigate the efficacy of model-based Working Memory (WM) training using an appropriate control condition. The interventions are a model-based, a single-task and a multi...
Memory for action is especially important in everyday life although current literature is not very abundant. The enactment effect (i.e. better memory for performed actions than for verball...
This 3-year research project aims to investigate and compare the treatment effectiveness (in terms of motor and psychosocial outcomes) and potential predictors (in terms of demographical, ...
This multi-centre study will evaluate the clinical efficacy of 3 atypical antipsychotics treatment in Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia by comparing model-decision with real-world psychi...
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.
A statistical tool for detecting and modeling gene-gene interactions. It is a non-parametric and model-free approach.