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Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is transforming clinical research and diagnostics, vastly enhancing our ability to identify novel disease-causing genetic mutations and perform comprehensive diagnostic testing in the clinic. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a commonly used method which captures the majority of coding regions of the genome for sequencing, as these regions contain the majority of disease-causing mutations. The clinical applications of WES are not limited to diagnosis; the technique can be employed to help determine an optimal therapeutic strategy for a patient considering their mutation profile. WES may also be used to predict a patient's risk of developing a disease, e.g., type 2 diabetes (T2D), and can therefore be used to tailor advice for the patient about lifestyle choices that could mitigate those risks. Thus, genome sequencing strategies, such as WES, underpin the emerging field of personalized medicine. Initiatives also exist for sharing WES data in public repositories, e.g., the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. In time, by mining these valuable data resources, we will acquire a better understanding of the roles of both single rare mutations and specific combinations of common mutations (mutation signatures) in the pathology of complex diseases such as diabetes.Herein, we describe a protocol for performing WES on genomic DNA extracted from blood or saliva. Starting with gDNA extraction, we document preparation of a library for sequencing on Illumina instruments and the enrichment of the protein-coding regions from the library using the Roche NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Exome v3 kit; a solution-based capture method. We include details of how to efficiently purify the products of each step using the AMPure XP System and describe how to use qPCR to test the efficiency of capture, and thus determine finished library quality.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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Techniques to determine the complete complement of sequences of all EXONS of an organism or individual.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Ability to read and write.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...
Clinical Research Organization
Contract Research Organization (CRO) provide research services outsourced on a contract basis to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, healthcare and medical device industries: biopharmaceutical development biologic assay development commercial...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...