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Mitral stenosis (MS) is a common valvular disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice and a reduction in mitral valve area (MVA). While rheumatic MS (RMS) is frequently encountered in young individuals in developing countries, degenerative MS (DMS) is seen in the elderly in developed countries and its prevalence is increasing. DMS is usually a late presentation of mitral annular calcification (MAC). Accurate assessment of MVA in patients with MAC is challenging due to the alterations in the atrial and valvular structures as well as the presence of other comorbidities in this aging population. We will review the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic assessment, and management of DMS and compare the findings with RMS. The latest therapeutic approaches, including medical, surgical, and transcatheter valvular interventions, will be discussed.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
Mitral stenosis frequently coexists in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Mitral stenosis severity evaluation is challenging in the setting of combined aortic stenosis and mitral stenosis because o...
The aim of the article is to discuss different therapeutic options for patients with severe mitral valve dysfunction because of mitral annular calcification (MAC), including mitral valve repair, conve...
Mitral valve repair (MVr) for severe, degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) is the gold standard, as medical management carries poor prognosis. However, despite clear benefit of MVr, many eligible pa...
Mitral valve (MV) repair is the procedure of choice to correct mitral regurgitation caused by degenerative MV disease, due to its well-documented superiority over MV replacement. Repair of the MV is f...
The study compares the efficacies of two surgical procedures for the treatment of mitral valve prolapse due to myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve: the chordae replacement and the ...
The purpose of this study is to establish the safety and feasibility of the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve in subjects with mitral annular calcification (MAC) associated with mitral stenosis (MS) ...
The main objective of this project is to determine intermediate-term echocardiographic outcomes in Medicare eligible patients (65 years of age and older) with moderate surgical risk who ha...
The study evaluates the results of mitral valve repair with flexible band in comparison with rigid ring in patients undergoing mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral valve disease
Multicentre, double-armed, randomized controlled trial designed to compare mitral valve leaflet resection versus leaflet preservation with regards to the development of functional mitral s...
Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.
Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annulus of the MITRAL VALVE. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.
Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.
A type of constriction that is caused by the presence of a fibrous ring (discrete type) below the AORTIC VALVE, anywhere between the aortic valve and the MITRAL VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
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Surgery is a technology consisting of a physical intervention on tissues. All forms of surgery are considered invasive procedures; so-called "noninvasive surgery" usually refers to an excision that does not penetrate the structure being exci...