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Thyroid function is conventionally assessed by measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free circulating thyroid hormones, which is in most cases sufficient for correct diagnosis and monitoring of treatment efficiency. However, several conditions exist, in which these parameters may be insufficient or even misleading. For instance, both, a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and a mutation of thyroid hormone receptor β present with high levels of TSH and circulating hormones, but the optimal treatment is substantially different. Likewise, changes in thyroid hormone receptor α signaling are not captured by routine assessment of thyroid status, as serum parameters are usually inconspicuous. Therefore, new biomarkers are urgently needed to improve the diagnostic management and monitor treatment efficiency for e. g., replacement therapy in hypothyroidism or thyroid hormone resistance. By comparing animal models to human data, the present minireview summarizes the status of this search for new tissue- and pathway-specific biomarkers of thyroid hormone action.
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Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with neurodevelopmental delays in the offspring. However, it remains unknown whether prenatal thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) has benefits rega...
Thyroid hormones regulate a number of metabolic processes during pregnancy. After implantation, the placenta forms and enhances embryonic growth and development. Dysregulated maternal thyroid hormone ...
The evaluation and management of hypothyroidism in children are similar to adults, but there are important differences based on the dependence on normal thyroid function for neurocognitive and physica...
Iodothyronine deiodinases are selenoproteins that regulate thyroid hormone metabolism. Of the three types of deiodinases, type 2 is the major regulator of intracellular triiodothyronine concentratio...
The changes in skin and overall appearance that occur with increasing age can be partly attributed to declining hormone levels. While hormonal deficiencies are most commonly associated with postmenopa...
Mild thyroid failure is a common condition among older adults and has been associated with numerous adverse effects on health, such as cardiovascular disease, cognition disturbances and mu...
Although it is now recognized that a variety of respiratory abnormalities, such as diaphragmatic dysfunction, can be present in primary hypothyroidism and reverse with adequate hormone tre...
Patients taking thyroid hormone replacement after thyroid removal surgery often report feeling differently than they did prior to taking thyroid hormone. The symptoms can include fatigue, ...
Human thyroglobulin (Tg) is the most sensitive biochemical marker for recurrence of differentiated cancer (DTC), especially after the complete removal of thyroid tissue through surgery and...
In women who require thyroid hormone replacement medication, the investigators will compare 2 ways to adjust thyroid medication during pregnancy to determine superiority in maintaining opt...
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck, just above thecollarbone and is an endocrine gland that make hormones. These Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in the body, including how fast the body burns calories and how fast th...
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...
Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Disorders Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several g...