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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an indispensable cofactor in all domains of life, the homeostasis of which requires tight regulation. Here we report that a Nudix-related transcriptional factor, designated MsNrtR (MSMEG_3198), controls the pathway of NAD biosynthesis in , a non-tuberculosis . The integrated evidence and confirms that MsNrtR is an auto-repressor, and negatively controls the NAD biosynthetic pathway. Binding of MsNrtR cognate DNA is finely mapped, which can be disrupted by an ADP-ribose intermediate. Unexpectedly, we discover that the acetylation of MsNrtR at Lysine 134 participates in the homeostasis of intra-cellular NAD level in . Furthermore, we demonstrate that NrtR acetylation proceeds via the non-enzymatic acetyl-phosphate (AcP) route rather than the enzymatic Pat/CobB pathway. In addition, the acetylation of NrtR also occurs in its paralogs of Gram-positive bacterium and Gram-negative bacterium , suggesting a common mechanism of post-translational modification in the context of NAD homeostasis. Together, it represents a first paradigm for the recruitment of acetylated NrtR to regulate bacterial central NAD metabolism.
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Acetylation is a posttranslational modification conserved in all domains of life that is carried out by -acetyltransferases. While acetylation can occur on -amino groups, this review will focus on -ac...
Gut-homing γδ T cells are induced by chemokines and cell adhesion molecules and play a critical role in homeostasis and mucosal immunity; however, little is known regarding their upstream regulators...
Histone acetyltransferase GCN5 affects trichome initiation via mediating the expression of some core trichome initiation regulator genes in Arabidopsis. GENERAL CONTROL NON-REPRESSED PROTEIN5 (GCN5), ...
The impact of glucose metabolism on muscle regeneration remains unresolved. We identify glucose metabolism as a crucial driver of histone acetylation and myogenic cell fate. We use single-cell mass cy...
Mass spectrometry (MS) has been widely used in recent years for bacterial identification and typing. Single bacterial colonies are regarded as pure cultures of bacteria grown from single cells. In thi...
Background: Anemia in chronic heart failure (CHF) is directly linked to increased mortality and reduced exercise capacity. The pathomechanism for the development of anemia in CHF is not ...
The molecular nature of insulin resistance in human muscle is still incompletely defined. Our data indicate that acetylation of mitochondrial proteins in humans is regulated by muscle cont...
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare and severe congenital developmental disorder characterized by congenital anomalies and intellectual disability with a long term memory deficit. T...
The investigators' hypothesis is that valproic acid given before surgery for newly diagnosed breast cancer will increase breast tumor histone acetylation at tolerable doses and that the in...
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic modifications such as DNA-methylation and histone acetylation are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Aim of the present study is to inves...
A forkhead box transcription factor that is a major target of INSULIN signaling and regulator of metabolic homeostasis in response to OXIDATIVE STRESS. It binds to the insulin RESPONSE ELEMENT (IRE) and the related Daf-16 family binding element (DBE). Its activity is suppressed by insulin and it also regulates OSTEOBLAST proliferation, controls bone mass, and skeletal regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism. It promotes GLUCONEOGENESIS in HEPATOCYTES and regulates gene expression in ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is also an important CELL DEATH regulator. Chromosomal aberrations involving the FOXO1 gene occur in RHABDOMYOSARCOMA.
A winged-helix transcription factor that regulates GENE expression in metabolic tissues. It plays a role in HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE and controls expression of GLUT2 PROTEIN.
A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.
A dioxygenase that repairs alkylated DNA and RNA by oxidative demethylation. It has highest activity towards single-stranded RNA containing 3-methyluracil, followed by SINGLE-STRANDED DNA containing 3-methylthymine and specifically demethylates N(6)-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA, the most common internal modification of MESSENGER RNA (mRNA) in higher EUKARYOTES. It contributes to the regulation of the global metabolic rate, energy HOMEOSTASIS, as well as body fat accumulation by regulating the differentiation of ADIPOCYTES into BROWN FAT CELLS or WHITE FAT CELLS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 188.8.131.52.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...