Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Cocaine is an addictive drug that acts in brain reward areas. Recent evidence suggests that cocaine stimulates synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in midbrain, increasing dopamine neuron activity via disinhibition. Although a mechanism for cocaine-stimulated 2-AG synthesis is known, our understanding of 2-AG release is limited. In NG108 cells and mouse midbrain tissue we find that 2-AG is localized in non-synaptic extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are secreted in the presence of cocaine via interaction with the chaperone protein sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R). The release of EVs occurs when cocaine causes dissociation of the Sig-1R from ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF6), a G-protein regulating EV trafficking, leading to activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Blockade of Sig-1R function, or inhibition of ARF6 or MLCK also prevented cocaine-induced EV release and cocaine-stimulated 2-AG-modulation of inhibitory synapses in DA neurons. Our results implicate the Sig-1R-ARF6 complex in control of EV release and demonstrate that cocaine-mediated 2-AG release can occur via EVs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Addiction and eating disorders involve brain reward circuits. Binge eating predisposes to addictive behavior, while the cessation of exposure to drugs of abuse leads to reward activities, including in...
Human growth hormone (GH) binds and activates GH receptor (GHR) and prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR). LNCaP human prostate cancer cells express only GHR. A soluble fragment of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) e...
CB1 receptor antagonists disrupt operant responding for food and drug reinforcers, and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking. Conversely, enhancing endocannabinoid signaling, particu...
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an antistress neuropeptide transmitter in the brain that counteracts corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated stress and anxiety symptoms during drug and alcohol...
Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-craving and upregulates noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) system activity. Importantly, conditional stimulus-induced drug-seeking behavior depends parti...
The main objective of this study is to determine if the P.F.C. Sigma RP-F Knee delivers a greater post-operative range of motion (ROM) compared with the P.F.C. Sigma RP Knee in primary TKA...
The aim of this study is examining the combination of two FDA approved drugs, Opipramol and baclofen, which may increase rehabilitation from psychoactive substances. Previous studies have ...
Objective: Cocaine addiction continues to be an important public health problem with over 1.7 million users in the US alone. Cocaine addiction is characterized by compulsive drug use desp...
The primary objective of this investigation is to evaluate the performance (in terms of post-operative active range of motion at one year) of the P.F.C. Sigma and P.F.C. Sigma Rotating Pla...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease leading to motor neuron degeneration and progressive paralysis. Other studies have revealed defects in skeletal muscle even in absenc...
A class of cell surface receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Sigma receptors were originally considered to be opioid receptors because they bind certain synthetic opioids. However they also interact with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, and their endogenous ligand is not known (although they can react to certain endogenous steroids). Sigma receptors are found in the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, and in some peripheral tissues.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...