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Motor cortex (M1) has lateralized outputs, yet neurons can be active during movements of either arm. What is the nature and role of activity across the two hemispheres? We recorded muscles and neurons bilaterally while monkeys cycled with each arm. Most neurons were active during movement of either arm. Responses were strongly arm-dependent, raising two possibilities. First, population-level signals might differ depending on the arm used. Second, the same population-level signals might be present, but distributed differently across neurons. The data supported this second hypothesis. Muscle activity was accurately predicted by activity in either the ipsilateral or contralateral hemisphere. More generally, we failed to find signals unique to the contralateral hemisphere. Yet if signals are shared across hemispheres, how do they avoid impacting the wrong arm? We found that activity related to each arm occupies a distinct subspace, enabling muscle-activity decoders to naturally ignore signals related to the other arm.
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The developing spinal cord builds a boundary between the CNS and the periphery, in the form of a basement membrane. The spinal cord basement membrane is a barrier that retains CNS neuron cell bodies, ...
What is the central question of this study? How does single limb cold water immersion affect corticomotor function and intracortical circuitry in the motor cortex of each cerebral hemisphere? What is ...
Motor learning is associated with plasticity in both motor and somatosensory cortex. It is known from animal studies that tetanic stimulation to each of these areas individually induces long-term pote...
Electrocorticography (ECoG) is commonly used to map epileptic foci and to implement brain-computer interfaces. Understanding the spatiotemporal correspondence between potentials recorded from the brai...
A central tenet of neuroscience is that the brain works through large populations of interacting neurons. With recent advances in recording techniques, the inner working of these populations has come ...
The reticulospinal pathway (RSP) is at the center of spasticity mechanism. The RSP indirectly synapses with motor neurons via interneurons in the ventromedial intermediate zone in both hal...
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease, which is a group of neurological disorders that selectively affect motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscles of...
Although the primary motor cortex is considered has the common final pathway of motor commands, it is influenced by several structures as, for example, the premotor cortex and the posterio...
Deep Brain Stimulation represents the golden standard for surgical treatment of Parkinson disease (PD), but it is not optimally effective for controlling every motor sign and adverse event...
The motor cortex of the brain changes following chronic pain and injury, and this is linked to pain-associated changes in motor behaviour. This study aimed to investigate whether therapeut...
A composite area of the cerebral cortex concerned with motor control and sensory perception comprising the motor cortex areas, the somatosensory areas, the gustatory cortex, the olfactory areas, the auditory cortex, and the visual cortex.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Neurons that fire when an animal acts or observes the same action of another thus coding the motor response. They were originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey and studies have shown that neurons that have a similar mechanism are present in humans. Mirror neurons are theorized to be related to social cognition.
Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.
A form of apraxia characterized by an acquired inability to carry out a complex motor activity despite the ability to mentally formulate the action. This condition has been attributed to a disruption of connections between the dominant parietal cortex and supplementary and premotor cortical regions in both hemispheres. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p57)
Arthritis Fibromyalgia Gout Lupus Rheumatic Rheumatology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and management of disease involving joints, tendons, muscles, ligaments and associated structures (Oxford Medical Diction...