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In this study, we investigated the phytotoxicity of an imidazolium-based ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl), against maize seedlings. It was found that in response to an increase in [Amim]Cl treatment concentrations, there were significant decreases in growth parameters (fresh weights and lengths) and the photosynthetic pigment contents of maize plants, whereas in contrast, the malondialdehyde content increased. In order to determine the molecular basis of [Amim]Cl-induced plant growth inhibition, an RNA-Seq analysis to examine the gene expression profiles of selected central biological pathways was performed. And a total of 4024 genes that were differentially expressed between control and 400 mg/L [Amim]Cl-treated plants were accordingly identified. Pathway enrichment analysis for the differentially expressed genes revealed that 12 of 15 genes in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathways were down-regulated in response to [Amim]Cl treatment. Moreover, all six genes encoding key chlorophyll synthetic enzymes were down-regulated by [Amim]Cl. With regards to plant hormone metabolic pathways, the genes encoding key enzymes involved in ethybilene and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis were up-regulated in response to [Amim]Cl treatment. Genes responsible for gibberellin (GA) inactivation were also stimulated by [Amim]Cl. These observations indicate that [Amim]Cl may promote the biosynthesis of senescence-related hormones (ethylene and ABA) as well as inactivation of growth-promoting hormones (GAs). It might be concluded that the observed [Amim]Cl-induced inhibition of maize seedling growth could be associated with changes in the gene expression profiles of these metabolic pathways.
This article was published in the following journal.
1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Amim][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Bmim][Cl] are water-soluble ionic liquids (ILs) that can from an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) when mixed wi...
Concerns have been raised regarding the ecotoxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) owing to their wide usage in numerous fields. Three imidazolium chloride ILs with different numbers of methyl substituents, 1...
Planar photonic components can be fabricated with high resolution by electron beam patterning of polymer thin films on solid substrates such as silicon or glass. However, polymer films are normally fo...
Problems related to weed management such as outbreaks of herbicide-resistant weeds have recently increased. An interesting approach to such problems is to use plant materials with phytotoxic activity....
The present study deals with the cyto-genotoxicological impact of ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, trihexyl tetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluor...
The study analysis the influence of benzalkonium chloride on the density of antigen presenting Langerhans cells. This is achieved in a double blind randomized study using in-vivo confocal ...
Transcriptomics is the study of how RNA is expressed under specific conditions. Transcriptomic analyses of lesional skin biopsies can be a useful way to track how a patient responds to a d...
Discovery of differences in the host response in patients with systemic inflammation and sepsis, and identification of novel, specific markers by using a longitudinal clinico-transcriptomi...
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent and severe complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSC), and is responsible for significant early mortality despite prophyla...
Lupus erythematosus systemic is an auto-immune disease the evaluation of the activity of which remains very difficult because of an heterogeneousness of the clinical and biological symptom...
Meta-analysis of randomized trials in which estimates of comparative treatment effects are visualized and interpreted from a network of interventions that may or may not have been evaluated directly against each other. Common considerations in network meta-analysis include conceptual and statistical heterogeneity and incoherence.
Alkenes with the general formula H2C=CH-CH2-R.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Disorders Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several g...
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...