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Essential for the selection of a reliable treatment system is the characterisation of the effluent to treat. Kitchen wastewater (KWW) from food service establishments (FSEs) is a strong organic and fat-rich effluent whose characterisation has not been sufficiently addressed. KWW composition is highly variable and linked to the FSE's size, the type of meals prepared and the amount of water used during the cleaning. COD, TSS and fat content (FOG) are the most common parameters found in literature. However, other physical and chemical parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, oil droplets characteristics and trace elements), correlated to commercial kitchen cleaning practices rather than the specific effluent, but equally influential on the treatment efficiencies of both physical and biological methods, have hardly been investigated. A comprehensive characterisation of wastewaters from three food service establishments was used to generate data to support the selection of appropriate FOG mitigation methods. Two novel analytical methods were used to quantify the proportion of emulsified FOG and associated droplet size from different kitchen washing effluents. The results showed that more than 90% of the FOG from the dishwasher effluent and around 35% of sink one was emulsified, with droplet sizes less than 100 μm, well below the removal capabilities of conventional grease interceptors, but easily removed using biological means. From the WW composition results, a formula for predictive modelling was derived to represent average organic matter composition for kitchen wastewater as CHON, applicable in remediation processes. These results offer a good starting point for the design, operation, and optimisation of wastewater treatment systems of oil-rich KWW.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of environmental management
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Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.
A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...