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Strategically important elements are those that are vital to advanced manufacturing, low carbon technologies and other growing industries. Ongoing depletion and supply risks to these elements are a critical concern, and thus, recovery of these elements from low-grade ores and brines has generated significant interest worldwide. Among the strategically important elements, this paper focuses on rare earth elements (REEs), the platinum-group metals and lithium due to their wide application in the advanced industrial economics. We critically review the current methods such as precipitation, ion exchange and solvent extraction for extracting these elements from low-grade ores and brines and provide insight into the technical challenges to the practical realisation of metal extraction from these low-grade sources. The challenges include the low concentration of the target elements in brines and inadequate selectivity of the existing methods. This review also critically analyzes the potential applicability of an integrated clean water production and metal extraction process based on conventional pressure-driven membrane and emerging membrane technologies (e.g., membrane distillation). Such a process can first enrich the strategically important elements in solution for their subsequent recovery along with clean water production.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
Rare earth elements (REEs) are strategically important for national security and advanced technologies. Consequently, significant effort has been devoted towards increasing REE domestic production, in...
This study evaluates a simultaneous assessment of organic matter (OM) and trace elements (TE) bio-accessibility in substrate and digestate from a full-scale anaerobic digester by a sequential OM extra...
Hypersaline aqueous environments at subzero temperatures are known to be inhabited by microorganisms, yet information on community structure in subzero brines is very limited. Near Utqiaġvik, Alaska,...
Ultrasonication is known to induce cavitation and can thus accelerate extraction, dissolution, digestion, and other processes, while the intense mixing caused by the propagation of ultrasound waves en...
The continuous demand and uneven dispersal of natural mineral resources of lithium with a low recycling rate of lithium commodities have forced researchers to look for alternative resources like geoth...
The practice of mountain running or "trail" is in full development in France and elsewhere in the world. This sporting practice associates specific physiological constraints related in par...
One of the most important downsides of endoscopic surgery is the need to remove surgical specimens of different sizes through very small incisions. This step should ensure the complete ret...
This research project is important because there is no gold standard to rely on regarding the effect of the extraction of primary canines as an interceptive treatment for children with mes...
This prospective observational study aim to evaluate discomforts after extraction of temporary tooth under local anesthesia. The first objective is to describe the prevalence of the post-e...
The present retrospective study aims at assessing the clinical effects of a novel implant site development (Extraction site development - XSD) technique after tooth extraction compared wit...
Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.