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Evaluating studies over the past almost 40 years, this review, outlines the current knowledge and research gaps in the use of isolated leucocytes in salmonid immunology understanding. This contribution focuses on the techniques used to isolate salmonid immune cells and popular immunological assays. The paper also analyses the use of leucocytes to demonstrate immunomodulation following dietary manipulation, exposure to physical and chemical stressors, effects of pathogens and parasites, vaccine design and application strategies assessment. We also present findings on development of fish immune cell lines and their potential uses in aquaculture immunology. The review recovered 114 studies, where discontinuous density gradient centrifugation (DDGC) with Percoll density gradient was the most popular leucocyte isolation method. Fish head kidney (HK) and peripheral blood (PB) were the main sources of leucocytes, from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Phagocytosis and respiratory burst were the most popular immunological assays. Studies used isolated leucocytes to demonstrate that dietary manipulations enhance fish immunity, while chemical and physical stressors suppress immunity. In addition, parasites, and microbial pathogens depress fish innate immunity and induce pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcripts production, while vaccines enhance immunity. This review found 10 developed salmonid cell lines, mainly from S. salar and O. mykiss HK tissue, which require fish euthanisation to isolate. In the face of high costs involved with density gradient reagents, the application of hypotonic lysis in conjunction with mico-volume blood methods can potentially reduce research costs, time, and using nonlethal and ethically flexible approaches. Since the targeted literature review for this study retrieved no metabolomics study of leucocytes, indicates that this approach, together with traditional technics and novel flow cytometry could help open new opportunities for in vitro studies in aquaculture immunology and vaccinology.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Fish & shellfish immunology
Presented in this paper is an annual review of literatures published in 2018 on topics relating to analytical methods for pesticides and herbicides. According to the different techniques, this review ...
Pyeloplasty is one of the most common urological reconstructive interventions. Since the presentation of the first open pyeloplasty by Anderson and Hynes in 1949, the management of ureteropelvic junct...
Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy. Methods to study mitophagy in neurons is of increasing importance as neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's...
Sample preparation is the prior procedure of instrument analysis and significant to its effective and efficient. However, this procedure usually time-consuming, labor intensive, and prone to error. In...
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate counterparts of T cells that contribute to immune responses by secreting effector cytokines and regulating the functions of other innate and adaptive immune cel...
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Many patients undergoing surgery use naturopathic drugs, including fish oil. Fish oil has been reported to increase bleeding in patients through inhibiting platelet aggregation and prolong...
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Infections with bacteria of the family PISCIRICKETTSIACEAE, causing septicemic disease of salmonid fish (SALMONIDAE). Piscirickettsia-like bacteria are also associated with disease syndromes in non-salmonid fish.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Investigative techniques used in pre-clinical and clinical research, epidemiology, chemistry, immunology, genetics, etc. They do not include techniques specifically applied to DIAGNOSIS; THERAPEUTICS; anesthesia and analgesia; SURGICAL PROCEDURES, OPERATIVE; and DENTISTRY.
A persistent skin infection marked by the presence of furuncles, often chronic and recurrent. In humans, the causative agent is various species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS. In salmonid fish (SALMONIDS), the pathogen is AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...