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Previous studies have demonstrated that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) could induce hemocytes apoptosis in shrimps, however the inter-relationship between apoptotic process and the WSSV infection status is still currently underexplored. In the present work, the apoptosis and the viral proliferation in hemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei were simultaneously investigated post WSSV infection by two-color immunofluorescence flow cytometry and real-time quantitative PCR. The apoptotic hemocytes of WSSV-infected shrimp was significantly increased at 12 h post infection (hpi), whereas underwent a slight decline at 24 hpi subsequently. Since 24 hpi, the apoptotic rate of hemocytes in the WSSV-infected shrimp exhibited a rapid and significant increase, and reached the peak level at 48 hpi with the ratio of 18.1 ± 2.0%. Meanwhile, the percentage of WSSV-infected hemocytes and WSSV copies in hemocytes significantly increased at 24 hpi and maintained at a high level afterwards. With the rapid increase of hemocytes apoptosis, hemocyte density in hemolymph decreased dramatically to less than 20% of the mean value of control. Co-localization assay showed that the apoptotic WSSV-infected hemocytes occupied the dominant proportion of total apoptotic hemocytes, which reached the peak at 48 hpi with 12.6 ± 1.5%. The expression profiles of seven pro-apoptotic genes and two apoptosis-inhibiting genes showed significant differential responses at different stages of WSSV infection, reflecting the interplay between the virus and the host immune response. Our results demonstrated that the apoptotic response of shrimp hemocytes could be significantly influenced by the WSSV infection process, which might provide an insight into deeper relationships between viral infection and apoptosis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Fish & shellfish immunology
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A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
A chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting the female genitalia (VULVAR LICHEN SCLEROSUS) and BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS in males. It is also called white spot disease and Csillag's disease.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. Distinguish it from APOPTOSIS which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
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