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Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle with exogenous gonadotropins (COH) is associated with clinical complications. The aim of this work was to determine whether COH alters the physiological antioxidant status of follicular fluid in women with no reproductive dysfunction, compared to the natural cycle (NC). In this longitudinal study, forty-one women (oocyte donors) consecutively underwent NC and COH. Follicular fluid was collected at oocyte retrieval and different redox biomarkers were determined: total antioxidant activity (TAA), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), nitric oxide, α- and γ-tocopherol, the fatty acid composition, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidases, and the antioxidant paraoxonase (PON) family. Results showed that TAA (1.70 ± 0.03 mM versus 1.86 ± 0.03 mM, p < 0.05), α-tocopherol (4.37 ± 0.26 μM versus 5.74 ± 0.30 μM, p < 0.05), PON1 paraoxonase (245 ± 24 nmol/min/ml versus 272 ± 27 nmol/min/ml, p < 0.05), PON1 arylesterase (87.2 ± 4.6 μmol/min/ml versus 99.3 ± 4.8 μmol/min/ml, p < 0.05), and PON3 simvastatinase (13.48 ± 0.52 nmol/min/ml versus 16.29 ± 0.72 nmol/min/ml, p < 0.001) were significantly lower in COH versus NC. Fatty acids from COH were more saturated, increasing palmitate and decreasing the n-6 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Docosahexaenoic acid also increased (p < 0.05). Results suggest that COH could lead to premature ovarian aging and provide new insights into the possible prevention of the adverse effects of ovarian hyperstimulation by directing therapeutic applications to the maintenance of the redox balance and fatty acid status, with special attention to paraoxonase proteins and docosahexaenoic acid.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Free radical biology & medicine
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A molecular study of follicular fluid aspirated from ovarian follicles during routine in vitro fertilization treatment, after the eggs were identified and separated.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
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