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Intensive discussions are ongoing about the interpretation of pulmonary effects observed in rats exposed to poorly soluble particles. Alveolar clearance differs between rats and humans and becomes impaired in rats at higher exposure concentrations. Some have doubted the human relevance of toxic effects observed in rats under impaired clearance conditions and have suggested that experimental exposures should stay below concentrations inducing impaired clearance. However, for regulatory purposes, insight in potential health effects at relatively high concentrations is needed to fully understand the hazard. Many aspects of impaired particle clearance remain unclear, hampering human health hazard and risk assessment. For an adequate evaluation of the impact of impaired clearance on pulmonary toxicity, a clear definition of alveolar clearance is needed that enables to quantitatively relate the level of impairment to the induction of adverse pulmonary health effects. Also, information is needed on the mechanism of action and the appropriate dose metric for the pulmonary effects observed. In absence of these data, human hazard and risk assessment can only be performed in a pragmatic way. Unless available data clearly point out otherwise, rat pulmonary toxicity including lung inflammation and tumour formation, needs to be considered relevant for human hazard and risk assessment.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
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The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
ACNE-like skin eruptions caused by exposure to CHLORINE-containing compounds. Exposure can be by inhalation, ingestion, or through the skin. Chloracne is often seen in people who have occupational contact with chlorinated pesticides, wood preservatives, and sealants.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.
Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...