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It is now widely accepted that Hexapoda emerged from Crustacea. Compared to the ubiquitous calcified exoskeleton in crustaceans, a mineralized cuticle in insects is extremely rare. Catecholamine-driven protein cross-links play a leading role in the sclerotization of insect cuticle. In this study, mineralization was discovered in the pupal cuticle of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), a common pest of fruit farms. We mainly profiled the features of mineralized pupal cuticles from B. dorsalis and its white mutant B. dorsalis and unmineralized cuticle from Musca domestica using high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with structural analysis involving infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. We also compared the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of different pupal cuticles. The results showed that the pupal cuticles of B. dorsalis contain a phase of stable amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) with a high level of magnesium, which is mainly distributed in the exocuticle and assists in the formation of a graded, stiffened cuticle structure. Unexpectedly, this ACP possesses a very low Ca/P ratio and has a composition similar to that of CaHPO·2HO. The degree of mineralization in the pupal cuticle of B. dorsalis (approximately 22 wt%) is significantly greater than that of wild-type B. dorsalis (approximately 12 wt%), which indicates that there may be a connection between the biomineralization and tyrosine-mediated tanning pathways. These findings provide new evidence for the mineralization of the insect cuticle, which may shed new light on the evolutionary mechanism underlying the divergence of cuticle sclerotization between insects and crustaceans.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of insect physiology
Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) acts as a salivary biomimetic that provides bioavailable calcium and phosphate ions to augment fluoride-mediated remineralisation of early c...
For more than a decade, various research groups have tracked the population genetics of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in China and neighboring countries using mitochondrial cyto...
This article focuses on the relevance of amorphous calcium (and magnesium) phosphates in living organisms. Although crystalline calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials are known to constitute the majo...
Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) is safe for human consumption. SAS damages insect cuticle. Qualitative measurement of cuticle properties of insects affected by SAS is essential to understand mode of ...
The application of casein phosphopeptide and amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) for restoring mineral loss after dental bleaching with hydrogen or carbamide peroxide: An in-vitro study.
To conduct an in vitro evaluation of the effect of casein-phosphopeptide and amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride [CPP-ACPF] upon the calcium [Ca] and phosphorus [P] composition and morphology of...
Assess the effectiveness of applying grape seed extract (GSE) gel versus casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (MI) paste on remineralization of white spot lesion (WSLs) in pos...
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride varnish (CPP-ACP FV) in comparison to fluoride varnish (FV) as a remine...
Patients diagnosed with, or in risk of osteoporosis regularly take calcium dietary supplements, although their contribution to BMD maintenance, prevention of bone loss or reduction of the ...
The study was conducted to investigate the metabolic effects of three different calcium compounds in healthy adults.
Phosphate is present in many of the foods that the investigators eat and is required by many cellular processes. The kidneys are the only organ that excrete the extra phosphate from the di...
Glycosylated proteins which are part of the salivary glue that Drosophila larvae secrete as a means of fixing themselves to an external substrate for the duration of the pre-pupal and pupal period.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 18.104.22.168.
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...