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Intestinal functions, including motility and secretion, are locally controlled by enteric neural networks housed within the wall of the gut. The fidelity of these functions depends on the precision of intercellular signaling amongst cellular elements, including enteric neurons, epithelial cells, immune cells, and glia, all of which are vulnerable to disruptive influences during inflammatory events. This review article describes current knowledge regarding inflammation-induced neuroplasticity along key elements of enteric neural circuits, what is known about the causes of these changes, and possible therapeutic targets for protecting and/or repairing the integrity of intrinsic enteric neurotransmission. Changes that have been detected in response to inflammation include increased epithelial serotonin availability, hyperexcitability of intrinsic primary afferent neurons, facilitation of synaptic activity amongst enteric neurons, and attenuated purinergic neuromuscular transmission. Dysfunctional propulsive motility has been detected in models of colitis, where causes include the changes described above, and in models of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune conditions, where autoantibodies are thought to mediate dysmotility. Other cells implicated in inflammation-induced neuroplasticity include muscularis macrophages and enteric glia. Targeted treatments that are discussed include 5-HT agonists, cyclooxygenase inhibitors, antioxidants, B cell depletion therapy, and activation of anti-inflammatory pathways.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
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Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
A species of Faecalbacterium, previously classified in the FUSOBACTERIUM genus, that is a major constituent of the GUT MICROBIOTA in healthy humans. It has anti-inflammatory activity and reduced numbers of this species occur in patients with INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES such as CROHN DISEASE.
A chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting the female genitalia (VULVAR LICHEN SCLEROSUS) and BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS in males. It is also called white spot disease and Csillag's disease.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs
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