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Cystatin C, a well-established biomarker of renal function, has been associated with a protective effect against stroke. However, the potential neuroprotective mechanism of cystatin C in ischemic brain injury remains unclear. Our study hypothesized that cystatin C can ameliorate blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption by upregulating caveolin-1 expression, thereby improving neurological outcomes in cerebral ischemic injury. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining, and immunoprecipitation were performed to investigate target proteins. Evans Blue and gelatin zymography were used to examine the effect of cystatin C on BBB disruption. Plasmid and small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was used to observe alterations in caveolin-1 and occludin expression induced by changes in cystatin C expression. Intriguingly, our study showed that the expression of both cystatin C and caveolin-1 was increased in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-injured mice, and pretreatment with exogenous cystatin C significantly increased caveolin-1 expression, reduced Evans Blue leakage in the injured brain region, and decreased the enzymatic activity of matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9). Meanwhile, our study also showed that the overexpression of cystatin C greatly enhanced caveolin-1 expression, which later increased occludin expression in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-exposed brain microvascular endothelial (bEnd.3) cells. On the other hand, the knockdown of cystatin C induced the opposite outcomes. These experimental results indicate a positive role for cystatin C in the regulation of caveolin-1 and occludin expression in cerebral ischemic injury. Taken together, these data unveil a new mechanism of the regulation of caveolin-1 expression by cystatin C in the maintenance of BBB integrity after ischemic brain injury and provide new clues for the identification of potential therapeutic strategies for stroke.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of neurochemistry
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The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...