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Previous studies have revealed the anti-inflammatory properties of rice bran oil (RBO), but the detailed mechanisms are poorly understood. Recent studies on the molecular/cellular anti-inflammatory mechanisms of dietary components have demonstrated that mitochondrial respiration plays a key role in macrophage functioning. Since dietary lipids are major substrates for mitochondrial respiration through β-oxidation, the current study examined whether RBO regulates inflammatory responses by modulating mitochondrial energy metabolism. Palm oil (PO), enriched with palmitic acid which are known to be effectively taken up by cells and used for oxidative phosphorylation, served as a positive control. In the in vitro model of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine cells, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in the culture supernatant were significantly reduced by RBO treatment. In contrast, secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was upregulated by RBO. Transcription of genes encoding inflammatory mediator molecules (COX-2 and iNOS) and expression of activation markers (CD80, CD86, and MHC-II) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were suppressed by RBO. Mitochondrial respiration (as assessed by an extracellular flux analyzer) increased upon RBO treatment, as the basal respiration, maximal respiration, ATP production, and spare respiratory capacity were upregulated. In an in vivo study, C57BL/6 mice were fed a negative control diet containing corn oil (CO), PO, or RBO for 4 weeks, and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were isolated from their tibias and femurs. In pro-inflammatory M1-polarized BMDM (M1-BMDM), the RBO-induced suppression of IL-6 and TNF-α was recapitulated in vivo. Mitochondrial respiration in M1-BMDM also increased following the RBO intervention and the PO control treatment as compared to CO fed negative control. Overall, the current study for the first time demonstrates that RBO regulates inflammatory responses in murine macrophages by upregulating mitochondrial respiration. Further clinical studies are required to validate the animal study.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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OIL extracted from the hard outer brown layer of rice bran after the husk has been removed.
The anamorphic form of the fungus MAGNAPORTHE GRISEA and the most important pathogen of rice worldwide. It causes rice blast which prevents maturation of the rice grains.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
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