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Significant phenotypic overlaps exist between autophagy and acidogenesis in Aspergillus niger. The possible role of autophagy in the acidogenic growth and metabolism of this fungus was therefore examined and the movement of cytosolic EGFP to vacuoles served to monitor this phenomenon. An autophagy response to typical as well as a metabolic inhibitor-induced nitrogen starvation was observed in A. niger mycelia. The vacuolar re-localization of cytosolic EGFP was not observed upon nitrogen starvation in the A. niger Δatg1 strain. The acidogenic growth of the fungus consisted of a brief log phase followed by an extended autophagy-like state throughout the idiophase of fermentation. Mycelia in the idiophase were highly vacuolated and EGFP was localized to the vacuoles but no autolysis was observed. Both autophagy and acidogenesis are compromised in Δatg1 and Δatg8 strains of A. niger. The acidogenic growth of the fungus thus appears to mimic a condition of nutrient limitation and is associated with an extended autophagy-like state. This crucial role of autophagy in acidogenic A. niger physiology could be of value in improving citric acid fermentation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.
Proteins and enzymes that function, often as components of MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES, to assemble AUTOPHAGOSOMES and carry out AUTOPHAGY.
An autophagy related protein that is similar to UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME E1. It functions in CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport (Cvt) and AUTOPHAGY by activating ATG12 PROTEIN for its conjugation with ATG5 PROTEIN, as well as the conjugation of ATG8 FAMILY PROTEINS with phosphatidylethanolamine for ATG8 association to Cvt vesicles and AUTOPHAGOSOME membranes. It is also required for the nitrogen starvation response in yeast, MITOPHAGY; and autophagic cell death induced by CASPASE 8 inhibition.
Infections of the nervous system caused by fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS, most commonly ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS. Aspergillus infections may occur in immunocompetent hosts, but are more prevalent in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. The organism may spread to the nervous system from focal infections in the lung, mastoid region, sinuses, inner ear, bones, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. Sinus infections may be locally invasive and enter the intracranial compartment, producing MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; cranial neuropathies; and abscesses in the frontal lobes of the brain. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch 27, pp62-3)
Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.