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Cerebral hemodynamics after arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children are largely unknown. This study aims to explore long-term cerebral perfusion balance of vital tissue and its relation to motor outcome after childhood AIS. Patients diagnosed with childhood AIS (≤16 years at diagnosis, time since stroke ≥2 years) and typically developing peers were examined. Hemiparesis was classified according to the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure. Manual ability was assessed using the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Cerebral blood flow was measured by arterial spin labeling and analyzed in the following brain regions: the hemispheres, the territory of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), the middle cerebral artery (MCA), and in subregions of the MCA territory (MCA anterior, middle, posterior). To assess cerebral perfusion balance, laterality indices were calculated using cerebral blood flow in the ipsi- and contralesional hemisphere. Laterality indices were compared between stroke patients with and without hemiparesis, and peers. Twenty participants diagnosed with AIS were included (12 boys, 8 girls; mean age 14.46±4.96 years; time since stroke 8.08±3.62 years); 9 (45%) were diagnosed with hemiparesis. Additionally, 47 typically developing peers (21 boys, 26 girls; mean age 14.24±5.42 years) were studied. Laterality indices were higher in stroke patients and oriented to the contralesional hemisphere in all brain regions except the ACA territory and MCA posterior subregion. This was significantly different from peers, who showed balanced laterality indices. There was a significant correlation between laterality indices and manual ability, except in the ACA territory. AIS is associated with long-term alterations of cerebral blood flow in vital tissue, even in patients without hemiparesis. The degree of imbalance of cerebral perfusion in children after AIS is associated with manual ability.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
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Brain dysfunction or damage resulting from sustained MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION. When BLOOD PRESSURE exceeds the limits of cerebral autoregulation, cerebral blood flow is impaired (BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING; SEIZURES; altered mental status (in some cases progressing to COMA); PAPILLEDEMA; and RETINAL HEMORRHAGE.
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