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Schistosomiasis is a serious worldwide parasitic disease. One of the best ways to control schistosomiasis is to control the population of Oncomelania hupensis snails. We sought to identify a high-efficiency biogenic molluscicide against Oncomelania with low toxicity, to avoid chemical molluscicide contamination and toxicity in aquatic organisms. We extracted quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) from Macleaya cordata fruits. Molluscicidal activity of the QBAs against Oncomelania was determined using bioassay. Our results showed that the extracted QBAs had a strong molluscicidal effect. In treatment of O. hupensis with QBAs for 48 h and 72 h, the lethal concentration (LC50) was 2.89 mg/L and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The molluscicidal activity of QBAs was close to that of niclosamide (ethanolamine salt), indicating that QBAs have potential development value as novel biogenic molluscicides. We also analyzed physiological toxicity mechanisms by examining the activity of several important detoxification enzymes. We measured the effect of the extracted QBAs on the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CarE), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) in the liver of O. hupensis. We found that the effects of QBAs on detoxification metabolism in O. hupensis were time and concentration dependent. The activities of GST, CarE, AKP, and ACP in the liver of snails increased significantly in the early stage of treatment (24 h), but decreased sharply in later stages (120 h), compared with these activities in controls. GST, CarE, AKP, and ACP activity in the liver of snails treated with LC50 QBAs for 120 h decreased by 62.3%, 78.1%, 59.2%, and 68.6%, respectively. Our results indicate that these enzymes were seriously inhibited by the extracted QBAs and the detoxification and metabolic functions of the liver gradually weakened, leading to poisoning, which could be the main cause of death in O. hupensis snails.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS neglected tropical diseases
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A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain ISOFLAVONES, some of which show molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activity. Some species of Pongamia have been reclassified to this genus and some to DERRIS.
Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain molluscicidal triterpene glycosides (TRITERPENES).
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.
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