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The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a fibrocartilaginous tissue critical for chewing and speaking. In patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), permanent tissue loss can occur. Recapitulating the complexity of TMDs in animal models is difficult, yet critical for the advent of new therapies. Synovial fluid from diseased human samples revealed elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Here, we propose to recapitulate these findings in mice by subjecting murine TMJs with TNF-alpha or CFA (Complete Freund's Adjuvant) in mandibular condyle explant cultures and by local delivery in vivo using TMJ intra-articular injections. Both TNF-alpha and CFA delivery to whole mandibular explants and in vivo increased extracellular matrix deposition and increased cartilage thickness, while TNF-alpha treated explants had increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and degradative enzymes. Moreover, the application of TNF-alpha or CFA in both models reduced cell number. CFA delivery in vivo caused soft tissue inflammation, including pannus formation. Our work provides two methods of chemically induced TMJ inflammatory arthritis through a condyle explant model and intra-articular injection model that replicate findings seen in synovial fluid of human patients, which can be used for further studies delineating the mechanisms underlying TMJ pathology.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins that is structurally similar to LATENT TGF-BETA BINDING PROTEINS, but contain additional TGF-beta binding domains, in addition to unique domains at their N and C-terminals. Fibrillins assemble into 10-12 nm MICROFIBRILS that function in a variety of cell interactions with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and developmental processes such as ELASTIC TISSUE maintenance and assembly, and the targeting of growth factors to the extracellular matrix.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is believed to play a role in EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 was originally isolated in primary BREAST NEOPLASMS and may be involved in the process of tumorigenesis.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
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