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The two main demyelinating diseases in children are reviewed. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS). For its physiopathological characteristics, probable etiologies, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, evolution, as well as atypical alterations that complicate its diagnosis, the smaller the child is, more study is needed before reaching the diagnosis. The International Study Group of Multiple Pediatric Sclerosis, published the operating definitions for demyelinating diseases acquired from the central nervous system in children: the ADEM is monophasic, polysymptomatic and with encephalopathy. Its duration is up to 3 months, with fluctuating symptoms and magnetic resonance findings. MS is an isolated monofocal or polyfocal syndrome, without encephalopathy. Currently, two different and distinguishable diseases are considered from the onset of symptoms.
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To clarify the features of callosal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (A...
Plasma exchange (PLEX) may improve recovery of acute central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating events related to multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), transverse my...
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a monophasic post-infectious demyelinating disease, clinically defined by the acute onset of polyfocal neurological deficits including encephalopathy. A ...
Our aim is to emphasize the varied presentation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) to help health care professionals improve recognition of the disease in a timely manner, thereby allowing...
To evaluate the clinical presenation of acute disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in pediatric age group, treatments, and to asses the outcome at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saud...
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which is typically transitory and self-limiting. It is characte...
To establish a large, longitudinal collection of high quality samples and data from subjects with MS, selected other demyelinating diseases (Transverse Myelitis (TM), Neuromyelitis Optica ...
Central Nervous System (CNS) demyelinating conditions include multiple sclerosis (MS), Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM), Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) and Trans...
Experimental studies of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, indicate that the number of calories fed to mice prevent EAE and are also ...
This 2-year study will evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of ocrelizumab in children and adolescents ages >/= 10 to < 18 years with ...
A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form. (From Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S73-S79; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...