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Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, inflammatory and de myelinat ing disorder of the central nervous system with a predilection for the optic nerves and spinal cord. In 2004 the association of NMO with an antibody against the water channel aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) was published as a different pathology from multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently the term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is proposed, because the manifestations of the disease can be more extensive, affecting in addition to the optic nerve and spinal cord, the area postrema of the dorsal medulla, brainstem, diencephalon and typical brain areas (periependymal, corpus callosum, internal capsule and subcortical white matter). NMOSD is also applied to patients who meet the NMO criteria and are negative for AQP4-IgG. Within the latter group, the presence of another antibody, anti-MOG, has been detected in 20%, with a different physiopathological mechanism, but with a similar clinic and a better prognosis. The immunosuppressive treatment in the attack, as well as the long-term treatment in the cases that are indicated, is fundamental to avoid sequelaes and recurrences. The correct diagnosis of this entity is essential since it can be aggravated with the use of drugs useful in the treatment of MS. In this publication we will review the pathophysiology, clinical and diagnostic criteria of NMOSD, and discuss the different therapeutic options.
This article was published in the following journal.
Neuromyelitis optica, also known as Devic disease, is an autoimmune disorder that affects the spinal cord and optic nerve. This atypical demyelinating syndrome can be difficult to diagnose and respond...
We previously reported the association between blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP 78) autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica (NMO).
We describe the case of a 53-year-old woman who undergoes total splenectomy and later presents with aquaporin-4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The occurrence of NMO after acquired immun...
To study the genetic susceptibility to neuromyelitis optica (NMO) as well as the relationship between HLA genotypes and susceptibility to the disease in the southern Brazilian population.
This review discusses concepts for diagnosing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), distinguishing NMOSD from other inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, and highlights recen...
The purpose of this study is to determine if the drug eculizumab reduces the attack rate and improves outcome in patients with neuromyelitis optica.
The purpose of this study is to initially observe the safety and effectivity of RC18 in Participants with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders.
Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO)/ Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system mainly involving optic ne...
This study is being done to develop a database of pediatric patients in order to study the cause, early detection and best treatment for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in p...
This is a phase 1b interventional trial of bevacizumab (Avastin®) to evaluate the tolerability/safety and preliminary efficacy of bevacizumab (Avastin®) as add-on therapy for treatment o...
A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS in combination with acute MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE. Demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions form in one or both optic nerves and in the spinal cord. The onset of optic neuritis and myelitis may be simultaneous or separated by several months. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996 Apr;60(4):382-387)
Autoimmune disorders are conditions that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune disorders. Normally the immune system's white blood cells help protect ...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
Spinal Cord Disorders
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of the back which carry signals back and forth between the body and brain. It is protected by vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up the spine. An accident that damages the verte...